Researchers have examined the available literature for the effects of acute and chronic administration of cocoa flavanols on different cognitive domains. It turns out that cognitive performance was improved by a daily intake of cocoa flavanols.
An interdisciplinary team of scientists from the University of Leicester and other institutions has played a pivotal role in research investigating a possible link between air pollution and the rise in type 2 diabetes.
Higher intelligence (IQ) in childhood is associated with a lower lifetime risk of major causes of death, including heart disease, stroke, smoking related cancers, respiratory disease and dementia, finds a new study.
Dieters who go vegetarian not only lose weight more effectively than those on conventional low-calorie diets but also improve their metabolism by reducing muscle fat, a new study has found.
A new study examines how illness plays a role in suicide risk. Researchers found that 17 physical health conditions, ailments such as back pain, diabetes, and heart disease, were associated with an increased risk of suicide. Two of the conditions -- sleep disorders and HIV/AIDS -- represented a greater than twofold increase, while traumatic brain injury made individuals nine times more likely to die by suicide.
Nicotine-based e-cigarettes are potentially as harmful as unfiltered cigarettes when it comes to causing DNA damage, new research indicates.
Alcohol consumption, even at moderate levels, is associated with increased risk of adverse brain outcomes and steeper decline in cognitive (mental) skills, finds a new study.
When you dine on curry and baked apples, enjoy the fact that you are eating something that could play a role starving -- or even preventing -- cancer. New research identifies several natural compounds found in food, including turmeric, apple peels and red grapes, as key ingredients that could thwart the growth of prostate cancer.
Researchers found that drinking coffee and herbal tea may protect against liver fibrosis, estimated as the degree of liver stiffness, which is high in extensive scarring of the liver. Because these beverages are popular, widely available, and inexpensive, they could have the potential to become important in the prevention of advanced liver disease.
A new study tested the efficacy of tildrakizumab, an antibody that targets only a very specific immune system pathway. More than 60 percent of all patients who received the active medication showed improvement, compared to less than 10 percent of patients who received placebos.
The power of friendship gets stronger with age and may even be more important than family relationships, indicates new research.
Life is a series of choices. Every time you make a decision, there is a possibility that things won’t go as expected (risk) or that something bad will happen (loss). Aversion to risk and loss have powerful influences on how we make decisions. In a new paper researchers studied the influence of risk and loss aversion in people with anxiety, a disorder characterized by debilitating avoidance behavior and difficulties making daily-life decisions
Physical frailty is common among the elderly and is strongly associated with cognitive impairment, dementia and adverse health outcomes such as disability, hospitalisation, and mortality. A four-year study showed that a combination of nutritional, physical and cognitive interventions can reverse physical frailty in elderly people.
Despite mixed evidence recently about an association between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease, a new study that analyzed more than 250,000 medical records suggests there is no link.
The birth of a child is often a long-awaited and deeply meaningful event, but the transition to parenthood also forces the parents to revise their interparental romantic relationship. At the same time as the parents learn how to cope with the new situation, the infant undergoes one of the most intense developmental periods in human life. Attachment research has demonstrated the importance of the mother-infant relationship to children’s emotional development, but there is still relatively little research on the role of fathers, the marital relationship and the family as a whole.
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, a form of cognitive behavioral therapy that focuses on psychological flexibility and behavior change, provided a significant reduction in self-reported depression and anxiety among patients participating in a pain rehabilitation program, new research has demonstrated.
A brief and reliable survey tool to measure resilience in children and adolescents who have been displaced by the brutal conflict in Syria has been created by an international team of researchers.
Mind-body interventions (MBIs) such as meditation, yoga and Tai Chi don't simply relax us; they can 'reverse' the molecular reactions in our DNA which cause ill-health and depression, according to a study.
Physical activity among children and teens is lower than previously thought, and, in another surprise finding, young adults after the age of 20 show the only increases in activity over the lifespan.
Potential new ways of understanding the cause of cognitive impairments, such as problems with memory and attention, in brain disorders including schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s are under the spotlight in a new research review.
There is a tendency to highlight the importance of cognitive achievements and the family’s socioeconomic background for people’s success in the future, but this study shows that children’s self-regulation, which comprises children’s social skills and processing of emotions, directs the future development in a profound way in different domains of life. Strong self-regulation promotes success in education and work, the intimate relationship, health behavior, integration into society and the development of a flexible personality.
Good news for the treatment of retinal diseases using the organ-on-a-chip approach.
Patients who have aggressive prostate cancer could be identified by a highly accurate and simple blood test, according to an early study.
Music could be used to transform the lives of millions of people with learning difficulties, dementia, strokes, brain damage and autism and their families, according to new research.
A study examining the impact of antibiotics prescribed for nearly 1,500 adult patients found that adverse side effects occurred in one-fifth of them, and that nearly one-fifth of those side effects occurred in patients who didn't need antibiotics in the first place.
Medical researchers have discovered the role of the protein ZBTB48 in regulating both telomeres and mitochondria, which are key players involved in cellular aging. The results of the study will contribute to a better understanding of the human aging process as well as cancer development.
Researchers are taking the fight against global warming to colder climes. Their weapon of choice? Cold-loving bacteria.
The brain is a complex organ -- a network of nerve cells, or neurons, producing thought, memory, action, and feeling. How does this complex system change from childhood to adulthood to late life in order to maintain optimal behavioral responses? These questions were put to the test by psychologists who studied hundreds of fMRI brain scans, from two separate datasets, to see how the variability of brain signals changes or remains the same during a human lifespan.
Researchers have identified the precise toxic mechanism at work during an overabundance of the protein alpha-synuclein in neurons—the protein is a key causative agent in the development of Parkinson’s disease.
New findings suggest eating late at night could be more dangerous than you think. Compared to eating earlier in the day, prolonged delayed eating can increase weight, insulin and cholesterol levels, and negatively affect fat metabolism, and hormonal markers implicated in heart disease, diabetes and other health problems, according to recent results.
Research into oleic acid -- the primary ingredient in olive oil -- has shown how it can help prevent cancer-causing genes from functioning in cells, and may help to prevent cancer developing in the brain.
Rice bran, the outer covering of the rice grain, has high nutritional value and is a rich source of proteins, fats, minerals and micronutrients such as B vitamins, according to a study. Researchers suggest that rice bran, which is removed from whole grain rice during processing and used as animal feed, could have benefits for human health and nutrition.
Changes in immune activity appear to signal a growing brain tumor five years before symptoms arise, new research has found.
In a survey of adults with anxiety or a mood disorder like depression or bipolar disorder, about half reported experiencing chronic pain, according to researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health. The findings are published online in the Journal of Affective Disorders.
Early childhood exposures to specific phthalates were associated with depressed thyroid function in girls at age 3, according to scientists. Phthalates, a class of chemicals thought to disrupt the endocrine system, are widely used in consumer products from plastic toys to household building materials to shampoos.
The Canadian federal government's bill C-45 to legalize marijuana in Canada will jeopardize the health of young people and Parliament should vote against it, argues a new article.
A new study of US data suggests a sleep-deprived planet by century's end. Researchers show that unusually warm nights can harm human sleep and that the poor and elderly are most affected. Rising temperatures will make sleep loss more severe.
Global leaders in cancer research have called for the worldwide sharing of cancer data to save lives. The Global Alliance for Genomics and Health argue how the ‘freeing of data’ for a disease that knows no borders will enable researchers to find better treatments that increase survival and improve quality of life for cancer patients.
People who struggle to cope with uncertainty or the ambiguity of potential future threats may have an unusually large striatum, an area of the brain already associated with general anxiety disorder, according to research.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart diseases and stroke, account for one-third of deaths throughout the world, according to a new scientific study that examined every country over the past 25 years.
Researchers show that moderate exercise may improve hippocampal memory dysfunction caused by type 2 diabetes and that enhanced transport of lactate to neurons may be the underlying mechanism.
Two decades after a group of Colombian parents were shown how to keep their perilously tiny babies warm and nourished through breastfeeding and continuous skin-to-skin contact, a new groundbreaking study finds that as young adults their children continue to benefit from having undergone the technique known as Kangaroo Mother Care.
A new report finds some progress in combating pneumonia and diarrhea among young children in the nations most severely impacted by the two diseases, but they remain responsible for hundreds of thousands of preventable deaths around the world.
Studies of the microbiome should be integral to future precision medicine initiatives, argue scientists in a new article.
The delay between the time when a disease outbreak becomes possible and when it actually happens depends chiefly on how frequently infection is introduced to the population and how quickly the number of cases caused by a single individual increases, according to new research.
Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a new study reports a link between reduced functional activation and reduced cortical thickness in the brains of patients with bipolar disorder. The abnormalities were found in patients not currently experiencing depression or mania, which suggests that there is a structural basis for altered neural processing that may help explain why cognitive deficits persist even during periods of normal mood.
It is a well-known fact that fitness and well-being go hand in hand. But being in good shape also protects against the health problems that arise when we feel particularly stressed at work. As reported by sports scientists, it therefore pays to stay physically active, especially during periods of high stress.
Scientists who use postmortem brain tissue to study alcohol’s effects on brain structure and function will find this research interesting. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is an alcohol metabolite and its concentration in whole blood samples is a biomarker of drinking habits. For this study, scientists examined PEth levels in postmortem brains of individuals known to have had alcohol use disorders (AUDs).
A new study paves the way for understanding how some people stay healthy despite having disease-causing mutations
Scientists have measured the catastrophic genetic damage caused by smoking in different organs of the body and identified several different mechanisms by which tobacco smoking causes mutations in DNA. Researchers found smokers accumulated an average of 150 extra mutations in every lung cell for each year of smoking one packet of cigarettes a day.
For the first time, scientists have shown the extent by which interactions between environmental exposures and genetic variation across individuals have a significant impact on human traits and diseases like diabetes, heart disease and obesity, strengthening the case for precision medicine initiatives.
Food cooked at high heat may carry toxic chemicals that raise risk of heart disease, researchers have warned. Cooking at a lower heat could help to cut chances of developing the killer disease, the experts say.
Consuming dairy cheese instead of other sodium-laden foods may actually protect against some of sodium’s effects on the cardiovascular system, such as high blood pressure, according to researchers.
Low and very high levels of HDL, or “good cholesterol” are associated with a higher risk of dying from heart disease, cancer and other causes, according to a study. The findings from the first of its kind study suggest that a low level of good cholesterol may not be a heart disease risk factor on its own and that raising HDL does not likely reduce a person’s risk of heart disease.
Is social media good for you, or bad? Well, it's complicated. A study of 12 million Facebook users suggests that using Facebook is associated with living longer -- when it serves to maintain and enhance your real-world social ties.
What causes vision loss in glaucoma? There are two common answers that at first may seem disparate: the first is pressure, as in elevated ocular pressure, and the second is damage to the optic nerve, which is the structure that sends visual information to the brain. Both answers are correct.
Depression is generally considered to be a specific and consistent disorder characterized by a fixed set of symptoms and often treated with a combination of psychotherapy and medication. However, the standard rating scales used by healthcare professionals and researchers to diagnose this disease often differ in the symptoms they list, perhaps explaining why a one-size-fits-all treatment has to date been so ineffective, new research suggests.
Studying brain tissue from deceased donors, scientists have found common groups of genes disrupted among people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. The commonly affected genes sets, identified with RNA sequencing methods, engage in making proteins, controlling brain cell communications and mounting an immune system response, the researchers say.
Long-term exposure to air pollution is linked to a greater incidence of high blood pressure, according to the largest study to investigate the effects of both air pollution and traffic noise by following over 41,000 people in five different countries for five to nine years.
People with higher levels of psychopathic tendencies are more likely to assault their romantic partners. They are also more likely to drink alcohol, a study has found.
A major advance has been made in Alzheimer’s research, say researchers. They showed how a diseased vertebrate brain can naturally react to Alzheimer’s pathology by forming more neurons. Two proteins (Interleukin-4 and STAT6) have been identified to be relevant for this process. This is a big step towards the understanding, prevention or even healing of Alzheimer’s disease – a disease with about 170,000 new cases diagnosed every year in Germany.
Walking briskly or cycling for the recommended 150 minutes a week can reduce a person's risk of developing type 2 diabetes by up to 26%, according to new research.
Minimal exercise may be all it takes for postmenopausal women to better regulate insulin, maintain metabolic function and help prevent significant weight gain, research shows. These findings suggest that women can take a proactive approach and may not need to increase their physical activity dramatically to see significant benefits from exercise.
It's known that adverse childhood experiences carry over into adult life, but a new study is focusing on the effect of these experiences in the childhood years.
A newly discovered compound has been shown by researchers to block a protein that is essential for the sustained growth of up to a quarter of all cancers.
A new study shows that even low physical fitness, up to 20% below the average for healthy people, is sufficient to produce a preventive effect on most of the risk factors that affect people with cardiovascular disease.
To the tantalizing delight of chocolate lovers everywhere, a number of recent studies employing various methods have suggested that compounds in cocoa called flavanols could benefit cardiovascular health. Now a systematic review and meta-analysis of 19 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cocoa consumption reveals some further pieces of supporting evidence.
People with bipolar disorder are more than twice as likely to have suffered childhood adversity. Bipolar disorder is characterized by extreme depressive and manic states which impair quality of life and increase suicide risk. An urgent need in this field is better understanding of risk factors that can be used to improve detection and treatment.
Chikungunya virus has caused two recent massive outbreaks sickening millions of people. Now a team of researchers has shown that several existing compounds have potent activity against the critical CHIKV protease enzyme.
Oxytocin has been dubbed the "love hormone" for its role promoting social bonding, altruism and more. Now new research suggests the hormone may also support spirituality.
A ink between chronic pain and lack of sleep has been identified by a team of researchers. They also discovered that people with pain who believe they won't be able to sleep are more likely to suffer from insomnia, thus causing worse pain. A pioneering study could lead to specific cognitive therapy to cure insomnia and treat chronic pain.
Loneliness is linked to poor physical and mental health, and is an even more accurate predictor of early death than obesity. To better understand who is at risk, researchers conducted the first genome-wide association study for loneliness -- as a life-long trait, not a temporary state. They discovered that risk for feeling lonely is partially due to genetics, but environment plays a bigger role.
Growing up in a well-off home can benefit a child's physical health even decades later -- but a lack of parent-child warmth, or the presence of abuse, may eliminate the health advantage of a privileged background, according to a new study.
A study has found that EPO (erythropoietin) – best known as a performance-enhancing drug in sport – may improve cognitive functioning in patients suffering from bipolar disorder or depression. This raises hope for the first long-term treatment for this problem, which affects hundreds of millions of patients throughout the world.
Hatha yoga is an increasingly popular form of physical activity and meditative practice in the U.S. It is important to understand the calorie cost and intensity of yoga in relation to the national physical activity guidelines, which generally encourage 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week.
Endurance training changes the activity of thousands of genes and give rise to a multitude of altered DNA-copies, RNA, researchers report. The study also nuances the concept of muscle memory.
Mercury is a potent neurotoxin present in our daily lives and our body can accumulate it over the years. Food consumption, such as fish and rice, is the most common source of mercury exposure. Mercury can be found in dental amalgams, compact fluorescence lamps, vaccines, drugs, and electronics or can be used in artisanal gold mining. Finding the source of mercury contamination in our bodies is crucial for treatment and forensic investigations, but at present knowledge of the molecular form of mercury in human tissues and fluids, which could indicate source, is limited.
Smoking leaves its "footprint" on the human genome in the form of DNA methylation, a process by which cells control gene activity, according to new research. Even after someone stops smoking, the effects of smoking remain in their DNA
A greater emphasis on immune-based prevention should be central to new efforts like the federal Cancer Moonshot program, headed by Vice President Joe Biden, cancer researchers from across the United States write.
Active monitoring is as effective as surgery and radiotherapy, in terms of survival at 10 years, reports the largest study of its kind.
A model has been created that illustrates how economic globalization may create stressful employment factors in high-income countries contributing to the worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular disease.
Previous studies have largely assumed that the prevalence of mental disorders declines with old age. The results of a new large-scale study with innovative diagnostic methods conducted in six European countries reveal that, considering the previous year retrospectively, approximately one third of the respondents in the age group between 65 and 85 had suffered from a mental disorder, and roughly one quarter were mentally ill at the time of the interviews.
A healthy lifestyle, consisting of balanced nutrition, moderate exercise, and appropriate rest is an important part of your overall health and well-being and can help prevent illness too. A recent study specifically suggests that diet that includes plenty of green, leafy vegetables may lower the risk of glaucoma.
In recent years there has been increasing medical interest in correcting teeth that do not touch perfectly in order to prevent problems such as jaw pain, gaps between teeth and crowding. Now, a new study has concluded that dental occlusion is also related to the control of posture and balance.
The older we get, the more difficult it becomes to put the world around us in order. Yet, our brain develops remarkable strategies to slow down the effects of aging
New research suggests that it is essential for older adults to receive adequate dental care, as well as the support they need to maintain good oral health self-care
Smokers without obvious signs of heart disease were more likely than nonsmokers and former smokers to have thickened heart walls and reduced heart pumping ability, report investigators at conclusion of their study. The longer and more cigarettes people smoked, the greater the damage to their hearts' structure and function, they report. Heart measures in former smokers were similar to nonsmokers, suggesting that quitting may reverse tobacco-related damage.
Drugs don't lead to sustainable alleviation of mental disorders, psychologists claim. The researchers have compiled numerous studies that question the long-term effectiveness of psychotropic drugs; some even document negative effects after prolonged application. Psychotherapies, on the other hand, are effective in the long-term.
Being in a relationship does not necessarily, in itself, protect people from having suicidal thoughts. This is the finding of a recent study into the correlation between relationship status and suicidal thoughts.
European standards to prevent repeat heart attacks have now been released. The consensus document outlines the steps patients and healthcare professionals can take to prevent recurrent heart attacks.
It’s that time of year again, when students old and new are heading to university. Certain behaviors might be expected in the coming months, drinking in particular. Drinking is widespread among student populations, whether for social enrichment or the need to conform. However, many college students experience the darker side of binge drinking; violence, unsafe sex or poor academic performance. New research examines motivations for drinking in students with low self-esteem, finding that these individuals indulge far more than their more confident peers.
Researchers are eyeing the first new anti-hypertensive drug treatment strategy in more than 15 years, having identified a potential new way of treating high blood pressure, or hypertension, by targeting aberrant nerve signals in the carotid bodies, which sit on the common carotid arteries on each side of the neck.
Having sex frequently -- and enjoying it -- puts older men at higher risk for heart attacks and other cardiovascular problems. For older women, however, good sex may actually lower the risk of hypertension.
Intracellular defects that lead to cells' failure to decommission faulty 'power packs' known as mitochondria cause nerve cells to die, triggering the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
Researchers have shown how a complex mix of plant compounds derived from ancient clinical practice in China -- a Traditional Chinese Medicine -- works to kill cancer cells.
Exposure to air pollution at the place of residence increases the risk of developing insulin resistance as a pre-diabetic state of type 2 diabetes, report scientists.
Moderately vigorous physical activity -- for example, more strenuous than walking -- has been found to be associated with better cognition in a 25-year follow-up, a new study of 3050 twins finds.
A follow up to a previous study finding an association between adolescent bipolar disorder and the incidence of cigarette smoking and substance use disorder finds that risk was even greater five years later, particularly among those with persistent bipolar symptoms. The study also finds evidence that the presence of conduct disorder, in combination with bipolar disorder, may be the strongest influence on the risk of smoking and substance use disorder.
Researchers have found proof that psychopathic individuals can feel fear, but have trouble in the automatic detection and responsivity to threat.
Doctors and researchers know that human-made chemicals commonly found in plastics, foods, personal care products and building materials can interfere with how hormones like estrogen and testosterone work in the body.
Risk for suicide attempts and violent offending by children appears to be associated with their parents' psychiatric disorders, according to a new article.
Scientists have made an important step toward eliminating cancer recurrence by combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy. Specifically, they found that chemotherapy alone leads to two types of dormant cancer cells that are not killed outright and become resistant to additional chemotherapy, but when combined with immunotherapy, a majority of dormant cells also is destroyed.
Many countries across Africa and Asia-Pacific may be vulnerable to Zika virus outbreaks, with India, China, the Philippines, Indonesia, Nigeria, Vietnam, Pakistan, and Bangladesh expected to be at greatest risk of Zika virus transmission due to a combination of high travel volumes from Zika affected areas in the Americas, local presence of mosquitoes capable of transmitting Zika virus, according to a new modelling study.
Scientists say the more foreign languages we learn, the more effectively our brain reacts and processes the data accumulated in the course of learning.
New research examines the way our bodies, specifically our brains, become “stress-resilient.” There is a significant variation in the way individuals react and respond to extreme stress and adversity—some individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder or major depressive disorder—others recover from stressful experiences without displaying significant symptoms of psychological ill-health, demonstrating stress-resilience.
The growth of cancerous tumors is affected by the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in the body’s cells; TGF-beta both suppresses and stimulates tumor development, but it has not been understood how this happens. A new study reveals important details behind this process.
For older adults, having more or closer family members in one's social network decreases his or her likelihood of death, but having a larger or closer group of friends does not, finds a new study.
Malignant cancers strike certain organs, such as the colon or breast, more often than others. Researchers propose that this vulnerability in some organs may be due to natural selection. Humans can tolerate tumors in large or paired organs more easily than in small, critical organs, such as the heart, and so the larger organs may have evolved fewer mechanisms to defend against cancerous cells.
It is impossible to predict the onset of schizophrenic psychosis. If factors linked to a risk of psychosis can be identified, however, these may yield significant insights into its underlying mechanisms. Scientists have now established a link between particular genes and the size of important brain structures in individuals with an elevated risk of psychosis.
Becoming a volunteer later on in life can result in good mental health and wellbeing, according to researchers. However, their study found these effects did not apply before the age of 40, suggesting that the association with volunteering may be stronger at certain points of the life course.
Aerobic exercise, such as treadmills and exercise bikes, in combination with their medication, can significantly help people coping with the long-term mental health condition schizophrenia, according to a new study.
Higher levels of total physical activity are strongly associated with lower risk of five common chronic diseases, finds new research: breast and bowel cancer, diabetes, heart disease and stroke.
Curiosity could be an effective tool to entice people into making smarter and sometimes healthier decisions.
From middle-age, the brains of obese individuals display differences in white matter similar to those in lean individuals ten years their senior, according to new research.
A new generation of drugs that prevent cancer and Alzheimer's could be developed, thanks to a new database of the proteins needed for autophagy.
Researchers have found that medium-sized HDL particles (MS-HDL-P) and the number of HDL particles (HDL-P) are better markers of coronary artery disease than high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The researchers say it is possible to move past HDL-C to measures that better reflect HDL's role in disease risk, and suggest considering incorporation of MS-HDL-P or HDL-P into routine prediction of coronary heart disease
Having a positive attitude about aging makes older adults more resilient when faced with stressful situations, new psychology research finds.
An infection of the root tip of a tooth increases the risk of coronary artery disease, even if the infection is symptomless. Hidden dental root tip infections are very common: as many as one in four in Finland suffer from at least one. Such infections are usually detected by chance from X-rays.
Regular physical activity for older adults could lead to higher brain volumes and a reduced risk for developing dementia. It particularly affected the size of the hippocampus, which controls short-term memory, and its protective effect against dementia was strongest in people age 75 and older.
New research indicates that in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or indigestion, there is a distinct brain-to-gut pathway, where psychological symptoms begin first, and separately a distinct gut-to-brain pathway, where gut symptoms start first.
Want to cut calories and make healthier meal choices? Try avoiding unhealthy impulse purchases by ordering meals at least an hour before eating. New findings show that people choose higher-calorie meals when ordering immediately before eating, and lower-calorie meals when orders are placed an hour or more in advance.
Bacteria resistance to antibiotics can be offset by combining three antibiotics that interact well together, even when none of the individual three, nor pairs among them, might be very effective in fighting harmful bacteria, life scientists report. This is an important advance because approximately 700,000 people each year die from drug-resistant infections.
A new review of epidemiological evidence supports a causal association between alcohol consumption and cancers at seven sites in the body: oropharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon, rectum and female breast.
Despite increasing attention to issues of diversity in scientific research, participant populations in behavioral science tend to be relatively homogeneous. A special series in Clinical Psychological Science highlights the importance of broadening the traditional scope of clinical science research, advancing the field so that it can adequately address the needs and concerns of diverse populations.
Exercise therapy is as effective as surgery for middle aged patients with a common type of knee injury known as meniscal tear (damage to the rubbery discs that cushion the knee joint), finds a new study.
Researchers have succeeded in shedding light on the pathogenesis of DNA breakpoints that are associated with leukemia. A mechanism discovered in a recent study can explain up to 90% of DNA damages present in the most common type of leukemia in children.
When it comes to prostate cancer, watching and waiting can be the best clinical decision. Nonetheless, most men diagnosed with localized, low-risk prostate cancer choose active treatment. A new tool helps remove the emotion around choosing the right approach for this illness.
Meditation has long been promoted as a way to feel more at peace. But research shows it can significantly improve attention, working memory, creativity, immune function, emotional regulation, self-control, cognitive and school performance and healthy habits while reducing stress.
Cognitive brain training improves executive function whereas aerobic activity improves memory, according to new research.
If you had heart disease risk factors, such as high blood pressure, before your first stoke, your risk of suffering subsequent strokes and dementia long after your initial stroke may be higher. Taking good care of your heart disease risk factors -- even if you have never experienced a stroke -- is not only important to prevent the first stroke, but it can go a long way to prevent a second stroke and dementia, say researchers.
Eating less may help us lead longer, healthier lives, according to new results from a large, multicenter study. The paper reveals that a 25 percent reduction in calories can significantly lower markers of chronic inflammation without negatively impacting other parts of the immune system.
Overweight or obese women who lost weight through diet or a combination of diet and exercise also significantly lowered levels of proteins in the blood that help certain tumors grow, according to a study.
Regular cocaine and methamphetamine users can have difficulty choosing between right and wrong, perhaps because the specific parts of their brains used for moral processing and evaluating emotions are damaged by their prolonged drug habits, according to a study among prison inmates.
Increasing the number of men who undergo circumcision and increasing the rates at which women with HIV are given antiretroviral therapy were associated with significant declines in the number of new male HIV infections in rural Ugandan communities, new research has shown.
The inability to remember details, such as the location of objects, begins in early midlife (the 40s) and may be the result of a change in what information the brain focuses on during memory formation and retrieval, rather than a decline in brain function
Existing treatments are more effective than e-cigarettes to help people quit smoking, there are professional ethics concerns about providers who recommend them, and there is no strong evidence that e-cigarettes are safe, say authors of a new report.
There may be more than 100 million people with diabetes globally than previously thought, a landmark paper now outlines. The prevalence of global diabetes has been seriously underestimated by at least 25 per cent, the paper suggests.
Parents, and especially fathers, play a vital role in developing healthy behaviors in young adults and helping to prevent obesity in their children. When it came to predicting whether a young male will become overweight or obese, the mother-son relationship mattered far less than the relationship between father and son.
For young people entering adulthood, high-quality relationships are associated with better physical and mental health, according to the results of a new study.
Following cancer prevention guidelines on diet and physical activity consistently reduced overall cancer incidence and mortality, as well as reducing risk of breast, endometrial, and colorectal cancers.
When older adults tell stories, they often go off on tangents because they have trouble inhibiting other thoughts. New research shows how inhibition deficits also affect the way they see.
Scientists have released survey results showing that children who receive positive attention and care from their parents tend to have high incomes, high happiness levels, academic success, and a strong sense of morality.
Scientists have developed a powerful new method for finding drug candidates that bind to specific proteins, an advance that can be applied to a large set of proteins at once, even to the thousands of distinct proteins directly in their native cellular environment.
Drinking piping hot coffee, tea and the caffeine-infused beverage yerba mate probably causes cancer, the World Health Organization has announced.
Women live longer than men. This simple statement holds a tantalizing riddle that researchers explore in a perspective piece now published. A survival advantage for female humans stands out in the review of sex differences in longevity across many species. The authors say that understanding why this is could inform treatments to extend healthy lifespans
The majority of infectious diseases currently emerging as human epidemics originated in mammals. Yet we still know very little about the global patterns of mammal-to-human pathogen transmission. As a first step, researchers have assembled summative world maps of what's on record about mammal-to-human diseases.
Up until now, capturing an image of a prostate cancer has been difficult because prostate tissue and tumor tissue are so similar. Precise, non-invasive surgical treatment has proved difficult as a result. Now researchers report that prostate cancer patients may soon have a new option to treat their disease: laser heat.
Air pollution -- including environmental and household air pollution -- has emerged as a leading risk factor for stroke worldwide, associated with about a third of the global burden of stroke in 2013, according to a new study.
A new study finds a strong association between late onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality. This is the first study of its kind to investigate the influence of pubertal timing on male reproductive health. 1,068 healthy young Danish men participated in the study and provided information on the timing of puberty. This suggests that timing of pubertal onset may be a fundamental marker of male reproductive health. Men with a history of early puberty were shorter, had a higher BMI and were often smokers or exposed to prenatal tobacco smoke.
Compared to older people, younger adults experience greater antioxidant benefits from one exercise session, new research shows. According to a new study, age may play a significant role in a cell's ability to respond to that activity.
Persons with marked psychopathy are considered callous, cold, unrepentant, dishonest, and impulsive. At work, therefore, they can endanger the success of their entire team – at least that is the popular conception. But some people with psychopathic traits can also be different, research shows, because not all "psychopaths" are the same. Instead, at least two different facets of personality come together in psychopathy. They can occur together, but do not have to
New research has revealed the mechanisms that keep the brain clean during neurodegenerative diseases.
Medical societies recommend that patients with advanced cancer receive palliative care soon after diagnosis and receive hospice care for at least the last three days of their life. Yet major gaps persist between these recommendations and real-life practice, a new study shows.
Researchers found that individuals who maintain an active jogging habit into their senior years are spending nearly the same amount of metabolic energy as a 20-year-old.
A new study supports the notion that multiple personality disorder is rooted in traumatic experiences such as neglect or abuse in childhood, rather than being related to suggestibility or proneness to fantasy.
A major, decade-long study of thousands of Americans found that people living in areas with more outdoor pollution -- even at lower levels common in the United States -- accumulate deposits in the arteries that supply the heart faster than do people living in less polluted areas. The deposits in the coronary arteries accelerate the progression of atherosclerosis, which can contribute to heart disease and heart attacks.
The critical role of relationships in aging, along with the struggles faced by older adults living in cities, has been highlighted in a new report.
In the aftermath of violent acts such as mass shootings, many people assume mental illness is the cause. After studying the 2011 case of Norwegian mass murderer Anders Breivik, researchers are suggesting a new forensic term to classify non-psychotic behavior that leads to criminal acts of violence.
New research will investigate if large amounts of antibiotic resistant bacteria are present in agricultural soil which may spread into the food chain. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the major issues facing society: by 2050, if not tackled, it will kill more people than cancer, and cost, globally, more than the size of the current global economy, say experts. The aim of the research is to understand how AMR is introduced into natural soil bacteria, for example from manures applied by farmers or exposure to domesticated or wild animal and bird fecal droppings, and how this transfer takes place in different soil types.
A large worldwide study has found that, contrary to popular thought, low-salt diets may not be beneficial and may actually increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death compared to average salt consumption. The study suggests that the only people who need to worry about reducing sodium in their diet are those with hypertension (high blood pressure) and have high salt consumption.
The mistaken activation of certain cell-surface receptors contributes to a variety of human cancers. Knowing more about the activation process has led researchers to be able to induce greater vulnerability by cancer cells to an existing first-line treatment for cancers (mainly lung) driven by a receptor called EGFR.
Experts call for the creation of a global early warning system for infectious diseases. Such a system would use computer models to tap into environmental, epidemiological and molecular data, gathering the intelligence needed to forecast where disease risk is high and what actions could prevent outbreaks or contain epidemics.
Intensive therapies to reduce high blood pressure can cut the risk of heart disease in older adults without increasing the risk for falls, according to doctors.
A large proportion of cancer cases and deaths among U.S. individuals who are white might be prevented if people quit smoking, avoided heavy drinking, maintained a BMI between 18.5 and 27.5, and got moderate weekly exercise for at least 150 minutes or vigorous exercise for at least 75 minutes, according to a new study.
A third of the global burden of disease for mental, neurological and substance use disorders occurs in India and China -- more than in all high-income countries combined -- yet most people with mental disorders in these countries do not receive needed treatment.
Medical professionals have long known that the buildup of plaque in arteries can cause them to narrow and harden, potentially leading to a whole host of health problems -- including heart attack, heart disease and stroke. While high blood pressure and artery stiffness are often associated with plaque buildup, new research shows they are not the direct causes. Their findings suggest a new culprit: elastic fibers in the arterial wall.
A novel, non-toxic approach to treating a wide variety of cancers has been identified by a team of researchers. The treatment approach is based on a combination therapy of the sugar 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and fenofibrate, a well-studied cholesterol medication.
Holidays abroad may hold the key to tackling Scotland's vitamin D deficiency, research suggests. Vitamin D is known to be associated with good bone health. It has also been linked to wide-ranging health benefits including lower blood pressure, reduced heart disease risk and better chances of surviving cancer.
Being fit may reduce the decline in lung function that occurs as we grow older, according to new research.
Research has demonstrated a positive correlation between fitness and blood flow to areas of the brain where the hallmark tangles and plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology are usually first detected, indicating a possibility that regular exercise could stave off AD symptoms.
Higher levels of leisure-time physical activity were associated with lower risks for 13 types of cancers, according to a new study.
The online world is full of risky situations for teens, but allowing them to gradually build their own coping strategies may be a better parental strategy than forbidding Internet use, according to a team of researchers.
A new theory for the causes of dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases has been developed, involving an out-of-control immune system.
Investigators have been able to find out in which phases of our lives we are most at risk of becoming lonely. Their findings show that loneliness most often affects people in old age, beginning at approximately eighty. But there are also phases in midlife at which the risk is high.
Lower social cohesion among neighbors and higher crime rates contribute to higher rates of psychotic symptoms in children, a new study finds. The study is the first to look at what features of urban neighborhoods increase children's risk for experiencing psychotic symptoms.
A promising new test is detecting prostate cancer more precisely than current tests, by identifying molecular changes in the prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein, according to new research.
A new paper looks at how MRI and a clear understanding of the functional anatomy around the prostate can allow radiation oncologists to plan a course of treatment for patients with prostate cancer that spares these critical structures.
Parental depression contributes to greater brain activity in areas linked to risk taking in adolescent children, likely leading to more risk-taking and rule-breaking behaviors, a new study concludes. While previous research has found associations between clinically depressed parents and their teenagers' risk taking, the new study is the first to find corresponding changes in the adolescents' brains.
HDL's heart disease protection depends on the levels of two other blood fats or lipids associated with heart disease, a new study shows for the first time. If these fats are not within normal ranges, even a high HDL may not be protective, say scientists.
In preschoolers, proper nutrition positively affects social development, researchers have discovered. For this study, the scientists analyzed a sample of 1,795 3-year-old children from Mauritius, an island off the eastern coast of Africa with a population of about 1.3 million people. They focused on four aspects of physical health related to nutrition and four indicators of social development.
Eating a meal of seafood or other foods containing omega-3 fatty acids at least once a week may protect against age-related memory loss and thinking problems in older people, according to a team of researchers.
Researchers report that global elimination of HIV is possible, if countries use the strategy planned by the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. This 'treatment as prevention' approach has brought the HIV epidemic in Denmark to the brink of elimination, the authors said after analyzing two decades of data. However, this approach will only work in other countries if almost all patients adhere to their treatment regimens.
With the Internet in our pockets, are we more inclined to be inattentive to other tasks? A new study indicates that the answer is yes. The researchers designed a two-week experimental study and showed that when students kept their phones on ring or vibrate, they reported more symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity than when they kept their phones on silent.
Mercury accumulation in fish poses well-known health risks to humans and wildlife, but fish mercury levels are highly variable and key factors driving this variability remain unclear. Whether fish hunt nearshore or in the open water and what prey they eat affect the amount of mercury that accumulates in them, a new study shows.
New global figures reveal most common causes of death and ill health for 10-24 year olds. Evidence shows that behaviors that start in adolescence can determine health and wellbeing for a lifetime. Adolescents today also face new challenges, including rising levels of obesity and mental health disorders, high unemployment, and the risk of radicalization.
Neuroimaging studies of interconnected brain networks may provide the 'missing links' between behavioral and biological models of cognitive vulnerability to depression, according to a new review.
A recent study suggests that who we are might be more integrated with where we are than previously thought. The fact that experience can shape individual differences, which in turn can affect the quality of spatial and social cognition a person, suggests that growing up in certain built environments can have detrimental or beneficial effects on their cognitive ability. This brings up questions such as whether raising children in enclosed spaces versus open spaces will result in differences in spatial and social cognition.
All-cause mortality is higher for those who eat meat, particularly red or processed meat, on a daily basis, a review of large-scale studies involving more than 1.5 million people has found.
There may be an overlap between rare genetic variations linked to bipolar disorder and those implicated in schizophrenia and autism, new research suggests.
By switching from four wheels to two, bicyclists help reduce traffic and air pollution -- all while getting much-needed exercise. But that health benefit could be costly, due to exposure to potentially harmful compounds in motor vehicle exhaust. In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers analyzed breath samples to find out how much of these compounds are absorbed by the body.
Adults with bipolar disorder are just as likely to develop anxiety as depression following an episode of mania, according to data from a national survey of more than 34,000 adults.
Research has shown the significance of social relationships in influencing adult human behavior and health; however, little is known about how children's perception of their social networks correlates with stress and how it may influence development. Now, a research team has determined that children and adolescents physically react to their social networks and the stress those networks may cause.
People living with mental illness are overrepresented in the criminal justice system. Interventions to help this population, such as mental health courts, are becoming popular across the country. New research finds that for mental health courts to be successful, every professional engaged in the process should be aware of the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and participant engagement within the system and connect participants with comprehensive treatment and services as early as possible.
Men with aggressive prostate cancer that has stopped responding to conventional treatment could potentially benefit from a new class of cancer drug designed to overcome drug resistance, a new study suggests. Researchers found that the drugs, called Hsp90 inhibitors, specifically target and inactivate a mechanism commonly used by prostate cancer cells to evade the effects of standard treatment
Working past age 65 could lead to longer life, while retiring early may be a risk factor for dying earlier, a new study indicates.
Even small amounts of air pollution appear to raise the risk of a condition in pregnant women linked to premature births and lifelong neurological and respiratory disorders in their children, new research suggests.
A single minute of very intense exercise produces health benefits similar to longer, traditional endurance training, new research indicates. The findings put to rest the common excuse for not getting in shape: there is not enough time.
A simple technique that makes it possible to quickly and easily develop a new type of vaccines has been developed by researchers. The simple and effective technique will pave the way for effective vaccines against not only infectious diseases but also cancer and other chronic diseases.
A new study reports structural brain damage from an autoimmune encephalitis that impairs behavior in ways that are somewhat similar to the effects of "angel dust". The body sometimes makes substances that have effects on the brain in ways that resemble the effects of illicit drugs.
Improved air quality in US cities since the 1990s may not be enough to ensure normal lung function in children, suggest researchers. By age eight, children in their study living within 100 meters of a major roadway had lung function that was on average 6 percent lower than that of children living 400 meters or more away.
People with more friends have higher pain tolerance, researchers have found, in a study looking at social networks and endorphin levels.
Researchers have found that long-term exposure to environmental pollutants was associated with increased risk of mortality for many types of cancer in an elderly Hong Kong population.
Here's another reason to start saving for that beach house: new research suggests that residents with a view of the water are less stressed.
New study could lead to physicians recommending daily consumption of small amounts of dark chocolate. The new paper concludes that further observational research is needed to understand the role chocolate may play in insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders.
People who empathize easily with others do not necessarily understand them well. To the contrary: Excessive empathy can even impair understanding as a new study conducted by psychologists has established.
Infections continue to threaten human health. With remarkable genetic flexibility, pathogenic organisms outsmart available therapies. Fortunately, microbial versatility is matched by the host immune system, which evolves in dialogue with the microbes. Therapies that enhance the beneficial effects of the immune response represent a promising, but underexplored, therapeutic alternative to antibiotics.
An international research team has investigated interactions in different states of consciousness and has discovered that patients with severely impaired consciousness show a pathological or uncontrolled communication between resting-state networks.
Getting too little sleep causes changes in the metabolism of cholesterol, demonstrates a new study. According to the results, long-term sleep loss may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease.
Prevention of cardiovascular events in elderly patients presents a therapeutic challenge because this age group is generally underrepresented in clinical trials, and doctors often assume that it is too late to initiate preventive therapy in the elderly. A review by clinical experts of the best available evidence concluded that cholesterol-lowering and blood pressure-controlling therapy are the most effective treatments for reducing cardiovascular events in older adults, but that treatment needs to be individualized.
Thanks to combination antiretroviral therapy, many people with HIV can be expected to live decades after being infected. Yet doctors have observed that these patients often show signs of premature aging. Now a study has applied a highly accurate biomarker to measure just how much HIV infection ages people at the biological level -- an average of almost 5 years.
Patients receiving cancer treatment could increase their chance of survival by up to 20 percent and help stop their cancer from spreading by taking a low dose of aspirin, new research suggests.
Carotenoids, which are found at various levels in different banana cultivars, are important vitamin precursors for eye health. In a new study, researchers report a new understanding of how the fruit makes and stores the compound. Their findings could someday help in the development of banana varieties with enhanced health benefits.
A study highlighting the effectiveness of using positive memories and images to help generate positive emotions has been published by researchers. The work suggests that savouring positive memories can generate positive emotions. Increasing positive emotion can have a range of benefits including reducing attention to and experiences of threat.
Loneliness and social isolation are linked to around a 30 percent increased risk of having a stroke or developing coronary artery disease -- the two leading causes of illness and death in high income countries -- finds an analysis of the available evidence, new research shows.
The UK has seen a 20 percent fall in the incidence of dementia over the past two decades, according to new research from England, leading to an estimated 40,000 fewer cases of dementia than previously predicted. However, the study suggests that the dramatic change has been observed mainly in men.
Specific psychological and social work factors were associated with sleep problems both concurrently and two years after exposure, indicating prolonged consequences, new research suggests. Results show that quantitative job demands, decision control, role conflict and support from a superior in the workplace were the most consistent predictors of troubled sleep, which was characterized by difficulty initiating sleep or disturbed sleep. Findings remained significant after adjustment for potential con-founders such as age, sex and occupation skill level.
Particle numbers across the whole of Europe and especially in five European cities have been estimated with help of modelling. On the basis of the comprehensive overall picture produced by the results, it is possible to assess the harmful effects of particles on health considerably better than before.
The demand for radiotherapy across all European countries will increase by an average of 16% between 2012 and 2025, with the highest expected increase being for prostate cancer cases (24%), according to a new study.
In a new study, environmental pollutants found in fish were shown to obstruct the human body's natural defense system to expel harmful toxins. The research team suggests that this information should be used to better assess the human health risks from eating contaminated seafood
Scientists have identified a human (host) protein that weakens the immune response to HIV and other viruses. The findings have important implications for improving HIV antiviral therapies, creating effective viral vaccines, and advance a new approach to treat cancer.
Scientists at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have concluded, after careful review of existing evidence, that Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. In a new report, the CDC authors describe a rigorous weighing of evidence using established scientific criteria.
Older men using testosterone therapy were less likely to have complications that require them to go back to the hospital within a month of being discharged than men not using this therapy, a new large-scale population-based study shows for the first time.
A simulation of how the so-called “superbug” carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) might spread among health care facilities found that coordinated efforts prevented more than 75 percent of the often-severe infections that would have otherwise occurred over a five-year period
Radical treatment such as surgery and radiation for localized prostate cancer may cause significant side effects. Active surveillance is increasingly accepted as an option for treating patients with clinically insignificant disease to maintain their quality of life. Despite close monitoring, however, metastatic disease develops in a small number of men on active surveillance. About three percent of patients on surveillance had metastasis by a median of seven years after diagnosis.
Viruses work in groups to attack host cells more effectively, report scientists. The results of this study also show that natural selection “facilitates the teamwork of viruses in relation to their position in the same cell."
New research reveals how a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine produces compounds which may help to treat cancer and liver diseases.
ATR kinase inhibitors are more effective in cells with high levels of CDC25A protein expression, new research indicates. The finding facilitates the identification of patients that could benefit from ATR kinase inhibitor therapy.
We’re all aware of the physical advantages of exercising and the emotional advantages have also been well-documented. But how much do we know about the psychological impact of engaging in physical activity? This study demonstrates the positive impact of acute aerobic exercise on individuals experiencing emotion regulation difficulties.
In a new study, scientists show how immune receptors clear dead and dysfunctional brain cells and how they might be targets for treating neurodegenerative diseases
The use of a respiratory filter mask helps minimize the impact of pollution on people with heart failure during rush-hour traffic in big cities, shows a new study.
Researchers have found a promising way to tackle the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. When combined with antipsychotic medication, a rigorous regime of mental and physical exercise can repair what is the most debilitating aspect of the mental illness: deficits in memory, problem solving, speed of processing and social intelligence. More than anything, these deficits are what tend to result in individuals with schizophrenia becoming disabled.
Researchers are working to find a way to determine how serious prostate cancer is when first diagnosed to avoid unnecessary treatments, which can cause life long side effects and even death.
Office workers can stave off health problems associated with sitting down all day by regularly exercising, a new study has found. The study further emphasizes the importance of physical activity in the promotion and maintenance of health.
International physical activity guidelines generally recommend 150 minutes a week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, but a critical review of the literature indicates that just half this level of activity may still lead to marked health benefits. They challenge physical activity and exercise guidelines development groups to update their recommendations to reflect the evidence.
A new study tracks the emissions associated with 39 vegetarian meat alternatives, finding that producing these foods generates approximately 10 times less greenhouse gas emissions than producing comparable beef-based products.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and the burden is increasing -- much of which could be reduced through modifiable risk factors. A new review examines the role of the family for heart health by focusing on interdependence of the family, shared environment, parenting style, caregiver perceptions and genomics.
An innovative interventional radiology treatment for men with enlarged prostates decreases the number of times they wake to urinate in the night, according to new research.
New research involving mice suggests that maternal obesity and poor nutrition during pregnancy affects the egg reserves of female offspring.
Researchers have found that coffee consumption, including decaf, instant and espresso, decreases the risk of colorectal cancer. Moreover, these benefits increase the more coffee you drink.
The World Health Organization estimates that of the 500 million people worldwide thought to have diabetes, 90% have type 2 diabetes and the number diagnosed with diabetes by 2020 will increase dramatically. Diabetes can impair the body’s ability to thermoregulate leading to a relative inability to adequately regulate core temperature. This can have a profound impact on the ability of individuals with diabetes to work and play in adverse environments which includes workers in many vital industries who may be regularly exposed to harsh environmental conditions.
A new study reveals how two populations of neurons in the brain contribute to the brain's inability to correctly assign emotional associations to events. Learning how this information is routed and misrouted could shed light on mental illnesses including depression, addiction, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder.
While there is no cure, new research shows that patients with Alzheimer's can still benefit from both physical and cognitive rehabilitation, and that mimicry may be a useful tool to help them regain lost abilities.
Zika virus can be detected in blood samples taken from a pregnant woman while brain damage is developing, as well as isolated in cell culture from the brain tissue of the fetus.
In a new evolutionary proof of the old adage, 'we are what we eat,' scientists have found tantalizing evidence that a vegetarian diet has led to a mutation that -- if they stray from a balanced omega-6 to omega-3 diet -- may make people more susceptible to inflammation, and by association, increased risk of heart disease and colon cancer.
Increasing the total dose of radiation to patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer does not improve their long-term outcomes, according to a new study.
New research shows that individuals with a greater degree of activity in the stress center of the brain also have more evidence of inflammation in their arteries and were at higher risk for cardiovascular events, including heart attack, stroke and death, according to a new study.
Scientists have provided an overview of the most promising compounds which can be used as medications for prostate cancer in a new scientific article.
Long-term recreational football training produces a number of marked improvements in health profile for 63-75 year old untrained men -- including a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and diabetes -- research shows.
Many people believe a glass of wine with dinner will help them live longer and healthier -- but the scientific evidence is shaky at best, according to a new research analysis.
People who reverse their diabetes and then keep their weight down remain free of diabetes, new research shows. In addition, the team found that even patients who have had Type 2 diabetes for up to 10 years can reverse their condition.
A new 3-D printable hydrogel has been developed that opens the way to rapid, personalized cancer treatment by enabling multiple, simultaneous tests to find the correct therapy to target a particular tumor.
Cell biologists have discovered a new way of regulating of cell motility -- this discovery will make possible development of new drugs for curing onco- and vessel diseases.
An analysis based on long-term studies of nuns and Japanese American men provides compelling new evidence that dementia often results from a mix of brain pathologies, rather than a single condition.
Natural resilience may not be as common as once thought, research shows, and that when confronted with a major life-altering event many people can struggle considerably and for longer periods of time. The research questions prior claims that resilience is the 'usual' response to major life stressors by looking at longitudinal data in a more nuanced way and making less generalization about the human response to such dramatic events.
Achieving the metrics that define a healthy heart may translate to healthier brain function as people age. More ideal cardiovascular health measures meant less decline in brain processing speed and, to some extent, thinking ability and memory.
Leading standardized equations that predict the number of calories burned under level walking conditions are relatively inaccurate -- counting too few calories in 97 percent of cases, say researchers. The standards -- in place for close to half a century and based on data from limited people -- assume one size fits all. Researchers have now developed a new standardized equation that data indicates is up to four times more accurate.
A world-first study is likely to result in new treatments for five common and painful inflammatory diseases that affect millions of people around the world. The research found genes are the major cause of them rather than environment.
Choosing ongoing monitoring instead of immediate curative treatment (surgery or radiotherapy) leads to a better overall quality of life for men with low-risk prostate cancer. In fact, the quality of life (QoL) is about the same as for men who do not have cancer. These are the findings of a new long-term study comparing Active Surveillance, immediate curative treatment, and a reference group of men without cancer.
People become more active, sleep better and reduce their sitting time when they retire, a new Australian study has shown. The differences were significant even after adjusting for factors such as age, sex, urban/rural residence, marital status and education. There was no significant association found between retirement and alcohol use or fruit and vegetable consumption.
A variety of physical activities from walking to gardening and dancing can improve brain volume and cut the risk of Alzheimer's disease by 50%, a new study suggests.
Millions of people take statins to help lower their cholesterol level. Currently statins are prescribed to patients based on their future risk of cardiovascular disease, mainly driven by age, which excludes many individuals who may benefit from them. A research team has developed a new approach to determine which individuals should receive these important medications. Their findings could improve prevention of heart disease, especially in younger people.
Bipolar disorder, which affects nearly eight million Americans, takes a toll not only on patients, but also on their families and communities. In the new study, the researchers focused on a gene known as PDE10A, one of the many genes that has been linked to bipolar disorder, and the proteins this gene produces.
A new study shows that the more flights of stairs a person climbs, and the more years of school a person completes, the 'younger' their brain physically appears.
A new study confirms the age-old conception that meditation is associated with wisdom. Surprisingly, it also concludes that somatic (physical) practices such as classical ballet might lead to increased wisdom.
In a recently published study, providing advice over a 5-year period about leading a healthy lifestyle reduced the risk of heart-related deaths over the next 40 years.
Sleeping less than four hours or more than eight hours a night increases the risk of dying from some types of coronary heart disease, such as heart attacks and unstable angina pectoris, according to a study by Norwegian and Taiwanese researchers.
Accumulation of the substance amyloid beta in the brain impairs the memory and cognitive ability in people with Alzheimer’s. New findings show that the cause of amyloid beta pathology might be more versatile than previously known. Researchers believe that these new findings may be of significance to the development of new medications.
Dr David Stensel and colleagues at the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine East Midlands (NCSEM-EM) studied women's hormonal, psychological and behavioural responses to calorie control through exercise and food restriction over the course of nine hours.
A report has reviewed the most effective ways to treat and prevent burnout and work-related stress, and revealed organizational interventions in the workplace may be more effective than individual interventions alone.
New research presents strong evidence that the Zika virus can indeed cause a range of abnormalities in pregnant women infected with the virus -- with the effects manifesting any time during pregnancy. Some of the abnormalities noted have not been reported in connection with the virus.
Researchers have figured out how a developmental disease called microcephaly produces a much smaller brain than normal: Some brain stem cells are simply too slow as they proceed through the neuron production process. The findings provide not only a new mechanistic explanation for microcephaly, but could also enhance understanding of autism or other neurodevelopmental disorders thought to arise from disruptions in the proper balance of neurons in the brain.
Taking certain antidepressants for depression is linked to a heightened risk of subsequent mania and bipolar disorder, new research reveals. The strongest association seemed to be for serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs for short, and the dual action antidepressant venlafaxine, the analysis indicated.
The mirror becomes an object that they cannot live without. They fall in love with their own reflection and believe that they deserve special treatment, becoming aggressive if they don't receive it. For the first time, a Spanish study carried out on 591 adolescents and their parents demonstrates that exposure to violence in the home, a lack of affectionate and positive communication between parents and children, and a permissive upbringing all create narcissistic adolescents who physically or verbally assault their parents.
People vary according to different personality traits, such as extraversion or conscientiousness, and new research suggests that they also vary according to a particular cognitive trait: distractibility. The findings are published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet, and the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University in Sweden have identified a gene variant linked to psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment in people with bipolar disorder. The study, which is published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry, describes a possible mechanism for how the gene variant produces clinical symptoms by affecting levels of specific proteins in the brain
The potent humanin analogue protects male germ cells, which are essential to fertility, and white blood cells, which are the soldiers in the body's defense system, during chemotherapy, new research shows. Researchers also report that HNG reduced metastases, or the spread of cancer cells to other organs in the body.
A childhood family breakup can have long-term negative consequences for the children. Recent University of Illinois research looks at overall health, depression, and smoking as a health-related behavior and finds that, for girls, all three are worse.
The number of prescriptions for mostly unregulated compounded hormone therapy for women at menopause has reached an estimated 26 to 33 million a year. That approaches the 36 million prescriptions per year for well-regulated and tested FDA-approved hormone therapy, shows an analysis of the market compounded hormone therapy market.
Going back to school could boost cognitive capacity
Drinking coffee daily was associated with a lower risk of deaths from Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases in nonsmokers. Regular consumption of coffee can be included as part of a healthy, balanced diet.
A new guideline aims to help Canadian physicians, nurses and pharmacists treat children and adults with acne, a disease that can severely affect quality of life. The guideline updates the previous guidance published 15 years ago.
Almost 8 percent of patients experience loss of at least one implant within ten years. Even more develop peri-implantitis. Patients with periodontitis run a greater risk of both implant loss and peri-implantitis, a study shows.
If you're feeling a little blue during the transition to menopause, there's good reason. A study from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill suggests that the estradiol fluctuation that is common during the menopausal transition may enhance emotional sensitivity to psychosocial stress. When combined with a very stressful life event, this sensitivity is likely to contribute to the development of a depressed mood.
Alzheimer's disease can emanate from more than one mechanism and is actually a collection of diseases that should be classified and treated separately, a group of scientists says. Their study proposes that the failure to develop efficient Alzheimer's therapy emanates from the pooling, in clinical experiments, of patients who suffer from distinct disorders that eventually lead to Alzheimer's symptoms. Therefore it is essential to carefully characterize and classify the mechanisms that underlie Alzheimer's disease, in order to allow for the development of novel therapies that can be prescribed to the individual patient according to their relevant disease subtype
People who live alone are more likely to have unhealthy diets lacking key foods, research has found. The study reported inadequate cooking skills, no partner to go shopping with, the increasing cost of food and a lack of motivation to cook were among the reasons people living alone had different eating practices.
Violence and conflict in areas affected by war, such as Gaza, can have a devastating effect on the mental health of the children exposed to it, according to research.
A diet developed for reducing cholesterol also lowers blood pressure, a new study has found. The portfolio diet lowered blood pressure by an average two per cent, when compared with another diet recommended to reduce hypertension.
Almost 8 percent of patients experience loss of at least one implant within ten years. Even more develop peri-implantitis. Patients with periodontitis run a greater risk of both implant loss and peri-implantitis, a study shows.
Millions of dental implants are inserted every year, and often they need to be replaced due to issues such as tissue infections caused by bacteria. In the future, these infections will be prevented thanks to a new plasma implant coating that kills pathogens using silver ions, say scientists.
If you're feeling a little blue during the transition to menopause, there's good reason. A study from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill suggests that the estradiol fluctuation that is common during the menopausal transition may enhance emotional sensitivity to psychosocial stress. When combined with a very stressful life event, this sensitivity is likely to contribute to the development of a depressed mood.
Alzheimer's disease can emanate from more than one mechanism and is actually a collection of diseases that should be classified and treated separately, a group of scientists says. Their study proposes that the failure to develop efficient Alzheimer's therapy emanates from the pooling, in clinical experiments, of patients who suffer from distinct disorders that eventually lead to Alzheimer's symptoms. Therefore it is essential to carefully characterize and classify the mechanisms that underlie Alzheimer's disease, in order to allow for the development of novel therapies that can be prescribed to the individual patient according to their relevant disease subtype.
People who live alone are more likely to have unhealthy diets lacking key foods, research has found. The study reported inadequate cooking skills, no partner to go shopping with, the increasing cost of food and a lack of motivation to cook were among the reasons people living alone had different eating practices.
Violence and conflict in areas affected by war, such as Gaza, can have a devastating effect on the mental health of the children exposed to it, according to research.
Inflammatory processes occur throughout the body, with a primary function of promoting healing after injury. However, when too active, these inflammatory processes can also damage the body in many ways, and may contribute to heart disease, stroke, certain cancers, and other significant medical problems.
To gain a clearer picture of health and disease, scientists have now provided an independent reference for all human variation by looking through the evolutionary lens of our nearest relatives. Such a powerful approach has been developed by Temple University professor Sudhir Kumar and colleagues and was detailed in the advanced online publication of Molecular Biology and Evolution.
People who are losing the ability to regulate their emotions may be more likely to suffer from insomnia. And if they do, that insomnia is more likely to become persistent, research suggests. Researchers surveyed 2333 adult members of the general public in Sweden. They were asked to complete a series of questionnaires on emotional regulation and a series on insomnia. The researchers found that a reduced ability to regulate emotions was associated with an 11 per cent increased risk of developing a new bout of insomnia or reporting persistent insomnia.
Men with relatively unaggressive prostate tumors and whose disease is carefully monitored by urologists are unlikely to develop metastatic prostate cancer or die of their cancers, according to results of a study that analyzed survival statistics up to 15 years.
A new study led by a sleep researcher supports what parents have been saying for centuries: to avoid getting sick, be sure to get enough sleep.
Older populations are scoring better on cognitive tests than people of the same age did in the past -- a trend that could be linked to higher education rates and increased use of technology in our daily lives, say population researchers.
Alzheimer's disease is associated with the appearance of characteristic neurotoxic protein aggregates in various regions in the brain. Chemical analysis of these insoluble deposits reveals that they are made up of a family of short protein fragments, referred to as beta-amyloid peptides, which are derived from a precursor protein called APP by the sequential action of two enzymes. Scientists have now made a discovery which extends this picture of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and has potentially far-reaching implications for our understanding of the condition.
A major multi-national study of suicides has identified the behavior patterns which precede many suicide attempts. This may lead to changes in clinical practice in the care of patients affected with depression, as it shows the clinical factors which confer major risk of suicide attempts.
Eating foods rich in amino acids could be as good for your heart as stopping smoking or getting more exercise -- according to new research.
A group of leading experts on the epidemiology of dementia state that the number of people with dementia -- both new cases and total numbers with the disease -- in some Western European countries is stabilizing despite population aging, in direct contrast to the 'dementia epidemic' reported in some recent studies.
New research warns of the risks posed by the increasing air pollution over the cities of West Africa – amid fears it could have an impact on human health, meteorology and regional climate.
A direct relationship exists between stress and globalization -- for instance, transnational corporations and transnational economics -- according to a recent study.
A widely used class of industrial chemicals linked with cancer and interference with immune function -- perfluorinated alkylate substances, or PFASs -- appears to build up in infants by 20-30 percent for each month they're breastfed, according to a new study. It is the first study to show the extent to which PFASs are transferred to babies through breast milk, and to quantify their levels over time.
The effect of workplace anxiety on job performance is closely connected to the quality of relationships between employees, their bosses and their co-workers, according to a new study.
Having friends who suffer from depression doesn't affect the mental health of others, according to research led by the University of Warwick.
Even light and moderate drinking (up to one drink a day for women and up to two drinks a day for men) is associated with an increased risk of certain alcohol related cancers in women and male smokers, suggests a large study.
Modern living could be responsible for an 'almost epidemic' increase in neurological brain disease.
If you are watching what you eat, working out, and still not seeing improvements in your cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar, etc., here's some hope. A new report suggests that inflammation induced by deficiencies in vitamins and minerals might be the culprit.
Use of oral contraceptives (usually referred to as "the pill"), even for just a few years, gives substantial long-term protection against endometrial (womb) cancer, and the longer the pill is used the greater the reduction in risk, according to a detailed re-analysis of all the available evidence.
Just a little moderate to vigorous physical activity -- below the recommended amount -- every week still seems to curb the risk of death among the over 60s, suggests an analysis of the available evidence.
By providing workers with a portable pedaling device, researchers have discovered that inspiring office employees to be active at work could be as easy as pedaling a bike -- and they don't have to leave their desks.
Research reveals that most individuals with cancer have religious and spiritual beliefs, or derive comfort from religious and spiritual experiences. But what impact does this have on patients' health?
The importance of nutrition for maintaining mental health has been highlighted by recent research. The human brain needs an adequate intake of key nutrients, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids Omega-3, essential amino acids, B-group vitamins (B12 and folate), vitamin D and minerals like zinc, magnesium and iron. A balanced and high-quality diet, such as the Mediterranean, provides all of these, the researchers note.
Reacting positively to stressful situations may play a key role in long-term health, according to researchers. Adults who fail to maintain positive moods such as cheerfulness or calm when faced with the minor stressors of everyday life appear to have elevated levels of inflammation. Furthermore, women can be at heightened risk, the researchers say.
Just one in 20 people worldwide (4·3%) had no health problems in 2013, with a third of the world's population (2·3 billion individuals) experiencing more than five ailments, according to a major new analysis.
Physical activities, such as walking, as well as aerobics/calisthenics, running, weight-lifting, and yoga/Pilates are associated with better sleep habits, compared to no activity, according to a new study. In contrast, the study shows that other types of physical activity -- such as household and childcare -- work are associated with increased cases of poor sleep habits.
There is mounting evidence that chronic inflammation is linked to increased risk of tumor development. A new study is helping to shed light on the important link between inflammation and cancer, and how pre-existing inflammation may aid in the metastatic process.
Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer in men and is predicted to result in an estimated 220,000 cases in the United States in 2015. A team of researchers recently published results of a randomized trial that assessed the safety and effectiveness of the active components in green tea to prevent prostate cancer development in men who have premalignant lesions.
All forms of smoking are bad for the heart, the European Society of Cardiology has warned.
Researchers from around the world have worked together to try to measure the global burden of cancer and they estimate there were 14.9 million new cases of cancer, 8.2 million deaths and 196.3 million years of a healthy life lost in 2013, according to new research.
Anxiety is common in people suffering from chronic pain, and people with anxiety are more likely to suffer from chronic pain. Now researchers have found the biological basis for this link in the connections between neurons in a brain region known as the anterior cingulate cortex. Better yet, they have identified a molecule that can reduce chronic pain-related anxiety.
Breast cancer is a disease that commonly spreads to other areas of the body; the most common site for the disease to spread is the bone. Leading scientists have identified a possible key to preventing secondary cancers in breast cancer patients, after discovering an enzyme that enhances the spread of the disease. They also report that an existing class of drugs for osteoporosis could stop the spread of the disease.
Moderate to heavy alcohol intake later in life may be associated with subtle changes in the structure and efficiency of the heart. Women may be particularly vulnerable to negative cardiac effects of alcohol at moderate to higher levels of consumption.
New research has found that esophageal cancer patients treated with proton therapy experienced significantly less toxic side effects, including nausea, blood abnormalities and loss of appetite, than patients treated with older radiation therapies.
Scientists and clinicians have carried out the first detailed study of how our intestinal tract changes as we age, and how this determines our overall health.
Researchers suggest that the portion of the brain devoted to hearing can become reorganized even with early-stage hearing loss, and may play a role in cognitive decline. They have applied fundamental principles of neuroplasticity, the ability of the brain to forge new connections, to determine the ways it adapts to hearing loss, as well as the consequences of those changes.
Studies have shown that both air pollution and impaired lung function can cause cognitive deficits, but it was unclear whether air pollution diminishes cognition by reducing breathing ability first or whether air pollution represents an independent risk factor for cognitive deficit. Now a new study has answered that question: air pollution directly affects cognition and is not mediated by lung function.
The proportion of parents who delay having children until age 35 or older continues to increase, but the long-term health consequences for these children are still emerging. A father's age at his infant's birth is linked to the risk that his child will develop blood and immune system cancers as an adult, particularly for only children, a new study concludes.
Thirty minutes of physical activity -- irrespective of its intensity -- six days a week is linked to a 40 percent lower risk of death from any cause among elderly men, finds new research. Boosting physical activity levels in this age group seems to be as good for health as giving up smoking, the findings suggest.
The prospect of death does not necessarily leave people feeling hopelessly mortal but depends rather on afterlife belief, suggests new research from psychologists who set out to establish in four separate studies whether people lose hope when thinking about death - known as Terror Management Theory - under a range of different conditions. The research was based on the premise that self-awareness among humans has been shown to create the potential for hope - or the general expectation and feeling that future desired outcomes will occur.
Although the use of cannabis as a medical drug is currently booming, we should not forget that leisure time consumption -- for example, smoking weed -- can cause acute and chronic harms. These include panic attacks, impaired coordination of movement, and nausea, as researchers show. The symptoms depend on a patient's age, the amount of the drug consumed, and the frequency of drug use.
Polygamy increases the risk of heart disease by more than 4-fold, reveals new research. The risk and severity of heart disease increased with the number of wives.
Hollywood has given moviegoers many classic portrayals of grumpy old men. But new research suggests that getting older doesn't necessarily make people cynical and suspicious. Instead, trust tends to increase as people age, a development that can be beneficial for well-being, according to two new large-scale studies.
Researchers conducted four studies to gauge the health effects of the hostile-dominant personality style compared with the warm-dominant style. Their findings are bad news for aggressive power-seekers.
Air pollution has been linked to a dangerous narrowing of neck arteries that occurs prior to strokes, according to researchers. The scientists analyzed medical test records for more than 300,000 people living in New York, New Jersey or Connecticut. They found that people living in zip codes with the highest average levels of fine-particulate-matter pollution were significantly more likely to show signs of narrowing (stenosis) in their internal carotid arteries, compared to those living in zip codes with the lowest pollution levels.
On the heels of the Federal Drug Administration's (FDA) second public workshop to explore the public health considerations associated with e-cigarettes, researchers explore the composition of e-cigarette vapor and the potential health impacts of secondhand exposure.
Limiting flies to specific eating hours protected their hearts against aging, a study has demonstrated. Previous research has found that people who tend to eat later in the day and into the night have a higher chance of developing heart disease than people who cut off their food consumption earlier. "So what's happening when people eat late?" asked a biologist whose research focuses on cardiovascular physiology. "They're not changing their diet, just the time."
The indoor air quality in nursing homes has a serious effect on the lung health of elderly residents, according to the findings of a new study. The research is the first to detail the negative effects of poor air quality in nursing homes across several countries.
A comprehensive program providing older people at risk of dementia with healthy eating guidance, exercise, brain training, and management of metabolic and vascular risk factors appears to slow down cognitive decline, according to the first ever randomized controlled trial of its kind.
Loneliness and social isolation are just as much a threat to longevity as obesity. The effect occurs even for people who like to be alone. Lack of relationships is a bigger health risk for people under age 65.
Exposure to common air pollutants during pregnancy may predispose children to problems regulating their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors later on, according to a new study.
Adults who commute to work via cycling or walking have lower body fat percentage and body mass index measures in mid-life compared to adults who commute via car, according to a new study.
Sitting for many hours per day is associated with increased coronary artery calcification, a marker of subclinical heart disease that can increase the risk of a heart attack, according to research. Coronary artery disease is the most common type of heart disease and the leading cause of death in the United States.
Doctors write millions of prescriptions a year for drugs to calm the behavior of people with Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia. But non-drug approaches actually work better, and carry far fewer risks, experts conclude in a new report.
A strong link has been made between subthreshold manic episodes and likelihood of developing bipolar disorder in children of parents with bipolar disorder. The study’s findings could improve clinical assessment and care for these high-risk children by potentially enabling earlier identification, treatment or possible preventive measures.
Highly anxious people have more trouble deciding how best to handle life's uncertainties. They may even catastrophize, interpreting, say, a lover's tiff as a doomed relationship or a workplace change as a career threat. Investigating this dynamic, scientists have found evidence of a glitch in the brain's higher-order decision-making circuitry that could eventually be targeted in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
Several studies have indicated a connection between learning and health. Researchers have now found that the health of school teachers is related to their level of work integrated learning.
Researchers are challenging conventional beliefs about the effectiveness of traditional strategies for encouraging healthy eating. Researchers tackle issues such as the harmfulness of weight-stigma, encouraging healthy choices, and strategies to help children and teens
Our modern material lifestyles are failing to make us happier, damaging our health, are no longer sustainable and cost the overall economy tens of billions of pounds every year.
A study on European children concludes that spending more than two hours a day in front of a screen increases the probability of high blood pressure by 30%. The article also points out that doing no daily physical activity or doing less than an hour a day increases this risk by 50%.
The risk of a heart attack is 8.5 times higher in the two hours following a burst of intense anger, researchers have found after investigating the link between acute emotional triggers and high risk of severe cardiac episodes. High levels of anxiety were associated with a 9.5 fold increased risk of triggering a heart attack in the two hours after an anxiety episode.
After having examined the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) new health assessment of bisphenol A, Danish experts maintain its assessment of the chemical compound, maintaining that the safe level recently recommended by EFSA does not adequately protect consumers against endocrine disrupting effects of bisphenol A.
Worldwide, consumption of healthy foods such as fruit and vegetables has improved during the past two decades, but has been outpaced by the increased intake of unhealthy foods including processed meat and sweetened drinks in most world regions, according to the first study to assess diet quality in 187 countries covering almost 4.5 billion adults.
Individuals with type 2 diabetes have heightened amounts of sugars and fats in their blood, which increases their risks for cardiovascular diseases such as strokes and heart attacks. Exercise is a popular prescription for individuals suffering from the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Now, researchers have found that individuals with type 2 diabetes can lower their risks of cardiovascular diseases more effectively by exercising after a meal
The science behind many anti-depressant medications appears to be backwards, say the authors of a paper that challenges the prevailing ideas about the nature of depression and some of the world’s most commonly prescribed medications.
An expert panel that examined data from 320 studies is recommending new guidelines on how much sleep people should get. The guidelines are based on age, ranging from newborns (who need 14 to 17 hours of sleep per day) to adults aged 65 and up (7 to 8 hours per day).
Individuals with mental health disorders have a risk of mortality that is two times higher than the general population or than individuals without such disorders, according to a new study.
Chronic inflammation is directly associated with several types of cancer, yet the reasons as to why this happens at a cellular level remain unclear. Now, an international team of scientists has identified a multistep process showing not only how these cancers develop but also potentially discovering new therapeutic targets that could halt the formation and progression of tumor cells
In a study called 'the largest investigation of the association between playing a musical instrument and brain development,' a child psychiatry team has found that musical training might also help kids focus their attention, control their emotions and diminish their anxiety.
People are living much longer worldwide than they were two decades ago, as death rates from infectious diseases and cardiovascular disease have fallen, according to a new, first-ever journal publication of country-specific cause-of-death data for 188 countries.
An experimental vaccine to prevent Ebola virus disease was well-tolerated and produced immune system responses in all 20 healthy adults who received it in a Phase 1 clinical trial.
We drink milk because it is good for us, but we rarely stop to think "Why?" Archaeologists and geneticists have been puzzling this question since it was revealed that the mutations which enable adults to drink milk are under the strongest selection of any in the human genome.
A new study is shedding light on an unexpected benefit of jogging in older adults. The study looked at adults over the age of 65 -- some of whom walk for exercise and some who run for exercise. The researchers found that those who run at least 30 minutes, three times a week were less likely to experience age-related physical decline in walking efficiency than those who simply walked.
People whose jobs require more complex work with other people, such as social workers and lawyers, or with data, like architects or graphic designers, may end up having longer-lasting memory and thinking abilities compared to people who do less complex work, according to new research.
Researchers studying the roots of depression have developed a test to measure analytical thinking and rumination, that are hallmarks of the condition, leading them closer to the idea that depression may actually be an adaptation meant to help people cope with complex problems such as chronic illnesses or marriage breakups.
Brain scientists have long believed that older people have less of the neural flexibility, or plasticity, required to learn new things. A new study shows that older people learned a visual task just as well as younger ones, but the seniors who showed a strong degree of learning exhibited plasticity in a different part of the brain than younger learners did.
Fatigue, increased irritability, and feeling demoralized, may raise a healthy man or woman’s risk of first-time cardiovascular disease by 36 percent, according to a study. The combination of fatigue, increased irritability, and feeling demoralized is medically known as vital exhaustion.
In a new study, scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) reveal that moving forward actually trains the brain to perceive the world normally. The findings also show that the relationship between neurons in the eye and the brain is more complicated than previously thought--in fact, the order in which we see things could help the brain calibrate how we perceive time, as well as the objects around us.
NIH study in rodents identifies a pathway that starts with glutamate and ends with activation of dopamine reward system
Geneticists at Heidelberg University Hospital's Department of Molecular Human Genetics have used a new mouse model to demonstrate the way a certain genetic mutation is linked to a type of autism in humans and affects brain development and behavior. In the brain of genetically altered mice, the protein FOXP1 is not synthesized, which is also the case for individuals with a certain form of autism. Consequently, after birth the brain structures degenerate that play a key role in perception. The mice also exhibited abnormal behavior that is typical of autism. The new mouse model now allows the molecular mechanisms in which FOXP1 plays a role to be explained and the associated changes in the brain to be better understood.
The health benefits of switching to a Mediterranean style diet and upping the amount of time spent exercising for a period of just eight weeks can still be seen a year after stopping the regime, a new study has shown.
A novel substance for the treatment of severe bacterial infections has been developed to work without antibiotics. Scientists say that this would prevent the development of antibiotic resistance. Scientists engineered artificial nanoparticles made of lipids, "liposomes" that closely resemble the membrane of host cells. These liposomes act as decoys for bacterial toxins and so are able to sequester and neutralize them.
Why is it that you can feel sad up to 240 times longer than you do feeling ashamed, surprised, irritated or even bored? It's because sadness often goes hand in hand with events of greater impact such as death or accidents. You need more time to mull over and cope with what happened to fully comprehend it, say researchers. This is the first work to provide clear evidence to explain why some emotions last a longer time than others.
Human exposure to aluminum may be a significant factor in falling sperm counts and reduced male fertility, new research suggests. Fluorescence microscopy using an aluminum-specific stain confirmed the presence of aluminum in semen and showed aluminum inside individual sperm.
Asthma, which inflames and narrows the airways, has become more common in recent years. While there is no known cure, asthma can be managed with medication and by avoiding allergens and other triggers. A new study points to a convenient, free way to manage acute asthmatic episodes -- catching some rays outside.
Not all fat is made the same. Scientists have observed that fat cells in an obese person produce more molecules called adipokines, which catch the attention of the body's immune system, causing them to invade fatty tissues
People who swap 5% of the calories they consume from saturated fat sources such as red meat and butter with foods containing linoleic acid—the main polyunsaturated fat found in vegetable oil, nuts, and seeds—lowered their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events by 9% and their risk of death from CHD by 13%, according to a new study led by Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers. Substitution of 5% of calories from carbohydrate with linoleic acid was associated with similar reductions in risk of heart disease.
In a new investigation by the University Department of Neurology, it has been possible for the first time to demonstrate that the areas of the brain that are important for understanding language can be pinpointed much more accurately using ultra-high-field MRI (7 Tesla) than with conventional clinical MRI scanners. This helps to protect these areas more effectively during brain surgery and avoid accidentally damaging it.
African sleeping sickness, the neglected tropical disease, affects tens of thousands of people and is mostly fatal. Now, new research has identified hundreds of chemical compounds that could lead to a cure.
Memories of experiences are encoded in the brain along with contextual and emotional information such as where the experience took place and whether it was positive or negative. This allows for the formation of memory associations that might assist in survival. Just how this positive and negative encoding occurs, however, has remained unclear.
When it comes to the brain, "more is better" seems like an obvious assumption. But in the case of synapses, which are the connections between brain cells, too many or too few can both disrupt brain function.
Ordinary over the counter painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs purchased from pharmacies may also be effective in the treatment of people suffering of depression.
"I can resist anything except temptation." Anyone who has ever been on a diet can relate to that quip from Oscar Wilde. No matter what the fad diet du jour says, the only way to lose weight is to reduce the net number of calories consumed. It's a simple equation, but a hard way to live.
Adolescents whose parents better understand their daily experiences have better psychological adjustment, suggests a study in the October issue of Psychosomatic Medicine: Journal of Biobehavioral Medicine, the official journal of the American Psychosomatic Society. The journal is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a part of Wolters Kluwer Health.
Pre-eclampsia, the potentially deadly condition that affects pregnant women, may be caused by problems meeting the oxygen demands of the growing fetus, according to an editorial in the November issue of Anaesthesia, the journal of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland (AAGBI).
Supplementing the diet with omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on heart health by lowering "bad" LDL cholesterol and raising "good" HDL cholesterol, but the underlying mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Now research based on the genetic information from over 100,000 individuals of European ancestry has uncovered a gene that affects blood cholesterol levels through the generation of a compound from omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, called lipoxins. The study, publishing online October 16 in the Cell Press journal Cell Metabolism, also provides additional evidence that aspirin assists in preventing heart attacks by promoting lipoxin production. These insights could change the way doctors care for patients at increased risk for heart disease.
Researchers have determined that African Americans and Caribbean blacks who experience discrimination of multiple types are at substantially greater risk for a variety of mental disorders including anxiety, depression and substance abuse.
The World Alzheimer Report 2014 'Dementia and Risk Reduction: An analysis of protective and modifiable factors,' released today, suggests that dementia risk for populations can be modified through tobacco control and better prevention, detection and control of hypertension and diabetes. The report calls for dementia to be integrated into both global and national public health programs alongside other major noncommunicable diseases.
Through the use of a new antibody, an international team of researchers has demonstrated how Parkinson's disease spreads from cell to cell in the human brain. Until now, this mechanism has only been observed in experimental models, but has now been demonstrated for the first time in humans too.
A new study further supports an inescapable message: caregivers have a profound influence -- good or bad -- on the emotional state of individuals with Alzheimer's disease. Patients may not remember a recent visit by a loved one or having been neglected by staff at a nursing home, but those actions can have a lasting impact on how they feel.
While antidepressants are the most commonly used treatment for social anxiety disorder, new research suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy is more effective and, unlike medication, can have lasting effects long after treatment has stopped.
The Ebola epidemic could claim hundreds of thousands of lives and infect more than 1.4 million people by the end of January, according to a statistical forecast released this week by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The CDC forecast supports the drastically higher projections released earlier by a group of scientists, including epidemiologists with the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, who modeled the Ebola spread as part of a National Institutes of Health-sponsored project called Midas, short for Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study.
For many years, the focus of brain mapping was to examine changes in the brain that occur when people are attentively engaged in an activity. No one spent much time thinking about what happens to the brain when people are doing very little.
For a long time, researchers have neglected the 100 million glial cells found in our brains, but that is no longer the case. Now they have discovered that the glial cells cleanse the brain of waste.
A combined research project by two universities has shown that an innovative treatment that involves rapid eye movements is reducing the symptoms of post-traumatic stress in trauma patients.
People who wish to know how memory works are forced to take a glimpse into the brain. They can now do so without bloodshed: RUB researchers have developed a new method for creating 3D models of memory-relevant brain structures. They published their results in the trade journal "Frontiers in Neuroanatomy".
If you believe the best-seller lists, the biggest bad in the supermarket aisles is not fat or sodium or sugar, but wheat. We have been warned that eating wheat makes our bellies fatter and triggers diseases ranging from diabetes to autism.
How the brain ages is still largely an open question - in part because this organ is mostly insulated from direct contact with other systems in the body, including the blood and immune systems. In research that was recently published in Science, Weizmann Institute researchers Prof. Michal Schwartz of the Neurobiology Department and Dr. Ido Amit of Immunology Department found evidence of a unique "signature" that may be the "missing link" between cognitive decline and aging. The scientists believe that this discovery may lead, in the future, to treatments that can slow or reverse cognitive decline in older people.
Simultaneously using mobile phones, laptops and other media devices could be changing the structure of our brains, according to new University of Sussex research. A study just published reveals that people who frequently use several media devices at the same time have lower grey-matter density in one particular region of the brain compared to those who use just one device occasionally.
A new study from researchers at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit finds widespread vitamin D deficiency among patients who undergo a thyroidectomy, potentially putting them at greater risk for developing dangerously low blood calcium levels after surgery.
Maintaining the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres, is a requisite feature of cells that are able to continuously divide and also a hallmark of human cancer. "Telomeres are much like the plastic cap on the ends of shoelaces—they keep the ends of DNA from fraying," says Roger Greenberg, MD, PhD, associate professor of Cancer Biology in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. In a new study published this week in Cell, he and his colleagues describe a mechanism for how cancer cells take over one of the processes for telomere maintenance to gain an infinite lifespan.
People have never been exposed to as many sensory stimuli as they are today. We do not, however, consciously perceive the majority of the sensory impressions that bombard us. Our brain processes these impressions without us noticing. But where does the brain decide which sensory information should reach our consciousness and which should not?
A new study by researchers at the University of Utah School of Medicine sheds light on a longstanding question about the role of mitochondria in debilitating and fatal motor neuron diseases and resulted in a new mouse model to study such illnesses.
The research, conducted by the University of Warwick's Medical School using data from the Health Survey for England, and published by BMJ Open focused on mental wellbeing and found that high and low mental wellbeing were consistently associated with an individual's fruit and vegetable consumption.
White matter is brain tissue containing nerve fibers responsible for brain communication. As we age, nerve fiber activity declines and disrupts brain function. But a new study suggests that among older adults, the structural integrity of white matter is not only dependent on levels of physical activity, but also on the amount of remaining time spent sedentary.
Artificial sweeteners may exacerbate, rather than prevent, metabolic disorders such as Type 2 diabetes, a study suggests. Calorie-free artificial sweeteners are often chosen by dieters in part because they are thought not to raise blood sugar levels.
Like everything else in the body, the white-matter fibers that allow communication between brain regions also decline with age. In a new study, researchers found a strong association between the structural integrity of these white-matter tracts and an older person's level of daily activity – not just the degree to which the person engaged in moderate or vigorous exercise, but also whether he or she was sedentary the rest of the time.
Dairy is considered part of a healthy diet and dietary guidelines recommend the daily consumption of 2-4 portions of milk-based products such as milk, yogurt, cheese, cream and butter.
Scientists from the Medical Research Council (MRC) Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol worked with colleagues around the world to discover a significant link between genetic changes near the ROBO2 gene and the number of words spoken by children in the early stages of language development.
More than 11 million antibiotic prescriptions written each year for children and teens may be unnecessary, according to researchers from University of Washington and Seattle Children's Hospital. This excess antibiotic use not only fails to eradicate children's viral illnesses, researchers said, but supports the dangerous evolution of bacteria toward antibiotic resistance
Schizophrenia is generally considered to be a disorder of brain development and it shares many risk factors, both genetic and environmental, with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and intellectual disability. The normal path for brain development is determined by the combined effects of a complex network of genes and a wide range of environmental factors.
One in five men in the U.S. reports violence towards their spouse or significant other, says a new nationally-representative study by the University of Michiga
An international team of scientists from Singapore, Thailand, China and Australia has cracked the genetic code of the liver fluke parasite, Opisthorchis viverrini, using a unique DNA analysis technique developed at A*STAR's Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS). Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-09-genetic-code-cancer-causing-liver-fluke.html#jCp
Women at high risk for the pregnancy complication known as preeclampsia should take low-dose aspirin daily after 12 weeks of pregnancy, a panel of U.S. health experts recommends.
Does a distinctive mechanism work in the brain of congenitally blind individuals when understanding and learning others' gestures? Or does the same mechanism as with sighted individuals work? Japanese researchers figured out that activated brain regions of congenitally blind individuals and activated brain regions of sighted individuals share common regions when recognizing human hand gestures. They indicated that a region of the neural network that recognizes others' hand gestures is formed in the same way even without visual information. The findings are discussed in The Journal of Neuroscience (July 23, 2014 electronic edition).
It's in the brain where we perceive the unpleasant sensations of pain, and researchers have long been examining how calcium channels in the brain and peripheral nervous system contribute to the development of chronic pain conditions.
Nerves and blood vessels lead intimately entwined lives. They grow up together, following similar cues as they spread throughout the body. Blood vessels supply nerves with oxygen and nutrients, while nerves control blood vessel dilation and heart rate.
Household air pollution, caused by the use of plant-based or coal fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting, is putting nearly three billion people worldwide at risk of ill health and early death, according to a new Commission, published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine journal.
Sleep difficulties may be linked to faster rates of decline in brain volume, according to a study. "It is not yet known whether poor sleep quality is a cause or consequence of changes in brain structure," said a study author. "There are effective treatments for sleep problems, so future research needs to test whether improving people's quality of sleep could slow the rate of brain volume loss. If that is the case, improving people's sleep habits could be an important way to improve brain health."
Being physically active every day may lower your risk of developing heart failure. The more active you are, the greater your protection from heart failure, studies show.
In a large population-based study of randomly selected participants in Germany, researchers found that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) occurred twice more often in individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2. Interestingly, this strong association was only observed in middle-aged participants (50-65 years), whereas in older participants (66-80 years) the association vanished.
In the central nervous system, serotonergic transmission is critically regulated by serotonin reuptake through the serotonin transporter. As a crucial pharmacological target of antidepressants, the role of erotonin transporter in treatment of major depression is well-established.
Until the last few decades, the frontal lobes of the brain were shrouded in mystery and erroneously thought of as nonessential for normal function - hence the frequent use of lobotomies in the early 20th century to treat psychiatric disorders.
Scientists at the University of Warwick have discovered that 'good' cholesterol is turned 'bad' by a sugar-derived substance. The substance, methylglyoxal - MG, was found to damage 'good' HDL cholesterol, which removes excess levels of bad cholesterol from the body.
Neurons in human skin perform advanced calculations, previously believed that only the brain could perform. This is according to a study from Umeå University in Sweden published in the journal Nature Neuroscience.
It may be possible to train the brain to prefer healthy low-calorie foods over unhealthy higher-calorie foods, according to new research.
Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis have developed algorithms to identify weak spots in tendons, muscles and bones prone to tearing or breaking. The technology, which needs to be refined before it is used in patients, one day may help pinpoint minor strains and tiny injuries in the body's tissues long before bigger problems occur.
Researchers from MIT, Pennsylvania State University, and Carnegie Mellon University have devised a new way to separate cells by exposing them to sound waves as they flow through a tiny channel. Their device, about the size of a dime, could be used to detect the extremely rare tumor cells that circulate in cancer patients' blood, helping doctors predict whether a tumor is going to spread
A herbal preparation prescribed by a Chinese herbal medication practitioner in Melbourne for back pain resulted in life-threatening heart changes, prompting a team of intensive care and emergency physicians to call for appropriate patient education by practitioners who prescribe complementary medications.
Human articular cartilage defects can be treated with nasal septum cells. Researchers at the University and the University Hospital of Basel report that cells taken from the nasal septum are able to adapt to the environment of the knee joint and can thus repair articular cartilage defects. The nasal cartilage cells' ability to self-renew and adapt to the joint environment is associated with the expression of so-called HOX genes. The scientific journal Science Translational Medicine has published the research results together with the report of the first treated patients.
A five-year old's brain is an energy monster. It uses twice as much glucose (the energy that fuels the brain) as that of a full-grown adult, a new study led by Northwestern University anthropologists has found.
Being physically active may significantly improve musculoskeletal and overall health, and minimize or delay the effects of aging. "An increasing amount of evidence demonstrates that we can modulate age-related decline in the musculoskeletal system," said the lead study author.. "A lot of the deterioration we see with aging can be attributed to a more sedentary lifestyle instead of aging itself."
Doctors in India have removed the skeleton of a foetus that had been inside a woman for 36 years in what is believed to be the world's longest ectopic pregnancy, a doctor has said.
Regardless of their stage or type, cancers appear to share a telltale signature of widespread changes to the so-called epigenome, according to a team of researchers. In a study published online in Genome Medicine on Aug. 26, the investigators say they have found widespread and distinctive changes in a broad variety of cancers to chemical marks known as methyl groups attached to DNA, which help govern whether genes are turned "on" or "off," and ultimately how the cell behaves. Such reversible chemical marks on DNA are known as epigenetic, and together they make up the epigenome.
Exercising to improve our cardiovascular strength may protect us from cognitive impairment as we age, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Montreal. "Our body's arteries stiffen with age, and the vessel hardening is believed to begin in the aorta, the main vessel coming out of the heart, before reaching the brain. Indeed, the hardening may contribute to cognitive changes that occur during a similar time frame,"
Researchers from UCL (University College London) have demonstrated how an interplay between nutrition, metabolism and immunity is involved in the process of aging
Researchers have found a possible molecular explanation for why overweight is harmful. This new knowledge may provide new drugs for heart attack, stroke, cancer and chronic intestinal inflammation
In contrast to evidence that the amygdala stimulates stress responses in adults, researchers at Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University have found that the amygdala has an inhibitory effect on stress hormones during the early development of nonhuman primates.
An imaging study of chronic users of codeine-containing cough syrups (CCS) has found deficits in specific regions of brain white matter and associates these changes with increased impulsivity in CCS users.
"Serotonin is a small molecule known to be implicated in a wide range of brain functions, from the control of sleep and appetite, to the regulation of complex emotional behaviours, This neurotransmitter is also popularly thought to contribute to feelings of well being and happiness, as some anti-depression medications work through increasing serotonin in the brain." – says Zachary Mainen, CNP director and principal investigator of the Systems Neuroscience Lab.
(Medical Xpress)—New Zealand adolescents may need to increase their fruit and vegetable intake and reduce unhealthy options like sugary drinks and takeaways, to protect their mental health.
Dengue fever could make headway in popular European holiday destinations if climate change continues on its predicted trajectory, according to research published in open access journal BMC Public Health.
Calcium buildup in the coronary arteries may be a better indicator of kidney disease patients' risk of heart disease than traditional risk factors used in the general population, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN). The findings provide valuable new information that could help safeguard the heart health of patients with kidney disease
A new study of 9- and 10-year-olds finds that those who are more aerobically fit have more fibrous and compact white-matter tracts in the brain than their peers who are less fit. "White matter" describes the bundles of axons that carry nerve signals from one brain region to another. More compact white matter is associated with faster and more efficient nerve activity.
Researchers have discovered that three commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, alter the activity of enzymes within cell membranes. Their finding suggests that, if taken at higher-than-approved doses and/or for long periods of time, these prescription-level NSAIDs and other drugs that affect the membrane may produce wide-ranging and unwanted side effects. Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-08-anti-inflammatory-drugs-affect.html#jCp
Even the most careful chosen meal can contain surprises. To defend against infectious microbes, viruses or other potential hazards that find their way to the intestines, a dedicated contingent of immune cells keeps watch within the thin layer of tissue that divides the contents of the gut from the body itself.
An international scientific collaboration led by Baylor College of Medicine has revealed clues about genetic alterations that may contribute to a rare form of kidney cancer, providing new insights not only into this rare cancer but other types as well.
Children and adolescents with autism have a surplus of synapses in the brain, and this excess is due to a slowdown in a normal brain "pruning" process during development, according to a study by neuroscientists at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC). Because synapses are the points where neurons connect and communicate with each other, the excessive synapses may have profound effects on how the brain functions. The study was published in the August 21 online issue of the journal Neuron
The cholesterol-lowering drug fenofibrate cuts cardiovascular disease risks by 30 per cent in women with type-2 diabetes, a new University of Sydney study reveals. "The finding is good news for women," says the study's chairman, University of Sydney Professor, Tony Keech.
While media attention has been focused recently on coronavirus cases in the Arabian peninsula and the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, experts note that another threat lies in the spread of Chikungunya fever, an illness that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause fever, joint and muscle pain, headaches, and rashes. While it does not often cause death, the symptoms can be severe and disabling, with no treatment available.
"Vitamin D concentrations were associated with a composite of in-hospital death, serious infections, and serious cardiovascular events," according to the new research by Dr Alparslan Turan and colleagues of the Cleveland Clinic. They believe their results warrant further study to see if giving vitamin D supplementation before surgery can reduce the risk of these adverse outcomes.
Results from the largest study of its kind ever conducted—involving 18 countries and more than 100,000 people—indicate that the current recommended maximum sodium intake for the population is actually too low and may even be unsafe. However, high sodium is also harmful, so an "optimal" range is the best target.
The lung-targeting nanoparticle 7C1 delivers therapeutic RNAs to cancer cells: siRNA, labeled in red, inundates mutant lung-cancer cells, the nuclei of which are shown in blue, after 7C1-mediated transfection. Credit: Gaurav Sahay, Wen Xue, and James Dahlman
Scientists from New York State report that higher doses of folic acid during pregnancy and throughout life may have lasting negative effects. The researchers found in their study that the higher doses of folic acid altered offspring's brain development and behavior in ways that are found in neurodevelopmental disorders.
Mammalian adult central nerve system (CNS) injuries are devastating because of the intrinsic difficulties for effective neuronal regeneration. The greatest problem to be overcome for CNS recovery is the poor regeneration of neurons and myelin-forming cells, oligodendrocytes.
A "Trojan horse" treatment for an aggressive form of brain cancer, which involves using tiny nanoparticles of gold to kill tumour cells, has been successfully tested by scientists.
Dartmouth researchers demonstrate in a new study that a previously understudied part of the brain, the retrosplenial cortex, is essential for forming the basis for contextual memories, which help you to recall events ranging from global disasters to where you parked your car.
A new study has examined adolescent victims of conflict in the Gaza strip and has found that exposure to war-torn environments has a lasting and damaging effect on the psychology of young people. The study investigated types of traumatic events experienced by Palestinian adolescents exposed to war in Gaza in relation to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and coping strategies and has found that a substantial number of adolescents in these situations develop a range of long-lasting emotional and behavior problems.
A new study shows that while the impact of life’s stressors accumulate overtime and accelerate cellular aging, these negative effects may be reduced by maintaining a healthy diet, exercising and sleeping well.
Running for only a few minutes a day or at slow speeds may significantly reduce a person's risk of death from cardiovascular disease compared to someone who does not run, according to a new study.
It is possible to predict long-term cancer risk from a chemical exposure by measuring the short-term effects of that same exposure, new research has found. The findings will make it possible to develop simpler and cheaper tests to screen chemicals for their potential cancer causing risk.
Research reveals how viruses called bacteriophages destroy the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which is becoming a serious problem in hospitals and healthcare institutes, due to its resistance to antibiotics. The study could help bring about a new way of fighting this and other bacteria.
Researchers argue that medicine focuses too much on fighting diseases individually instead of concentrating on interventions that prevent multiple chronic diseases and extend healthy lifespan. They call for moving forward with strategies that have been shown to delay aging in animals. In addition to promoting a healthy diet and regular exercise, these strategies include manipulating molecular pathways that slow aging and promote healthy longevity.
The changes in the brain that are associated with impulsiveness -- a personality trait that causes difficulties in inhibiting a response in the face of a stimulus and leads to unplanned actions without considering the negative consequences -- has been the focus of recent study. These patterns can serve as an indicator for predicting the risk of behavioral problems. A new study analyzes whether the connectivity of an infant's brain is related to children's impulsiveness.
Patients with advanced cancer can benefit from a rehabilitation program combining exercise, nutritional counselling and symptom control, according to an evidence review. Palliative care programs should be expanded to include these elements and should be available to patients from diagnosis.
Parents of obese children often do not recognize the potentially serious health consequences of childhood weight gain or the importance of daily physical activity in helping their child reach a healthy weight, a study shows. "Parents have a hard time changing their child's dietary and physical activity behaviors," said the study's lead author. "Our study tells us what factors may be associated with a parent's motivation to help their child become more healthy."
For some conditions, such as bipolar disorder, psychological treatments are not effective or are in their infancy. A 'culture gap' between neuroscientists and clinical scientists is hindering mental health treatment, say the life scientists, who call on scientists from both disciplines to work together to advance the understanding and treatment of psychological disorders.
Even in moderation, consumption of wine and hard liquor may be a risk factor for atrial fibrillation, an abnormally fast heartbeat that can lead to stroke, heart failure and dementia, according to new research. Moderate drinking was defined as one to three drinks per day. The research did not identify a similar risk for moderate consumption of beer.
Patients with serious heart and lung conditions don't have the normal range of facial expressions, particularly the ability to register surprise in response to emotional cues, finds preliminary research. This finding could be used to help busy emergency care doctors decide whom to prioritize for treatment, and gauge who really needs often costly and invasive tests, suggest the researchers.
Organic foods and crops have a suite of advantages over their conventional counterparts, including more antioxidants and fewer, less frequent pesticide residues, the largest study of its kind has found. The study looked at an unprecedented 343 peer-reviewed publications comparing the nutritional quality and safety of organic and conventional plant-based foods, including fruits, vegetables, and grains. The study team applied sophisticated meta-analysis techniques to quantify differences between organic and non-organic foods.
Reducing the amount of alcoholic beverages consumed, even for light-to-moderate drinkers, may improve cardiovascular health, including a reduced risk of coronary heart disease, lower body mass index and blood pressure, according to a new multi-center study. The latest findings call into question previous studies which suggest that consuming light-to-moderate amounts of alcohol may have a protective effect on cardiovascular health.
Circuits in the brain involved in pursuing and relishing rewarding experiences are more strongly activated in people with bipolar disorder, guiding them towards riskier gambles and away from safer ones, researchers report. The study used brain imaging to identify neural pathways that are responsible for the symptoms of the disorder. The findings will help to design, evaluate and monitor therapies for bipolar disorder.
Cardiologists have found that sedentary behaviors may lower cardiorespiratory fitness levels. New evidence suggests that two hours of sedentary behavior can be just as harmful as 20 minutes of exercise is beneficial.
A new study is the first to identify specific coping behaviors through which stress exposure leads to the development of insomnia. Results show that coping with a stressful event through behavioral disengagement -- giving up on dealing with the stress -- or by using alcohol or drugs each significantly mediated the relationship between stress exposure and insomnia development.
Researchers have found evidence that the less older adults sleep, the faster their brains age. These findings, relevant in the context of a rapidly ageing society, pave the way for future work on sleep loss and its contribution to cognitive decline, including dementia.
Novel dosing regimens for polymyxin combinations to maximize antibacterial activity and to minimize the emergence of resistance and toxicity -- this has been the focus of a recent research study. Developed more than 50 years ago, polymyxins were not subject to modern antibiotic drug development standards. And they have proved to be toxic to both the kidneys and nervous system.
Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is beneficial for both physical and mental health throughout life. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that it may also play a key role in brain health and academic performance. In a new study, researchers studied the independent and combined influence of components of physical fitness on academic performance.
Nanoparticles are becoming ubiquitous in food packaging, personal care products and are even being added to food directly. But the health and environmental effects of these tiny additives have remained largely unknown. A new study now suggests that nanomaterials in food and drinks could interfere with digestive cells and lead to the release of the potentially harmful substances to the environment.
Following 2003 FDA warnings about a potential danger to young people taking antidepressants, antidepressant use plummeted and attempted suicide by psychotropic drug poisoning increased proportionally by 22 percent. The FDA later revised the warning to recommend that physicians consider both the risk of prescribing the medication and the risk of not prescribing the medication, monitoring patients for thoughts of suicide and treating them as needed.
A compound, hydroxynorketamine (HNK), has been identified by researchers that may treat symptoms of depression just as effectively and rapidly as ketamine, without the unwanted side effects associated with the psychoactive drug, according to a study. Interestingly, use of HNK may also serve as a future therapeutic approach for treating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, the authors note.
For the first time, researchers were able to predict further adaptations of the chikungunya virus that recently spread from Africa to several continents that will likely result in even more efficient transmission and infection of more people by this virus strain. Since 2005, 1 in 1,000 chikungunya virus infections has resulted in a fatal disease.
Physical inactivity has been linked with diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, but it can also increase the risk of certain cancers, according to a study. When the highest levels of sedentary behavior were compared to the lowest, the researchers found a statistically significantly higher risk for three types of cancer -- colon, endometrial, and lung.
Is sleep one of your most important family values? A new study suggests that it should be, reporting that more parental sleep is related to more child sleep, which is related to decreased child obesity.
People with diets higher in protein, especially from fish, may be less likely to have a stroke than those with diets lower in protein, according to a meta-analysis.
Obesity and diabetes are among the fastest growing health problems in the world, and the hunt is in for a pill that can fight the problem.
The clear benefits of a multi-dimensional exercise regimen that includes resistance exercise, interval sprint exercise, stretching (including yoga or pilates), endurance exercise, and moderate amounts of protein consumed regularly throughout the day have been demonstrated and reported by exercise scientists. If your goal is to lose weight and maintain optimal health and fitness, the quality of your exercise and diet regimen matters more than the quantity, they say.
A new study examines the risks of e-cigarettes, and concludes that they are not a healthy alternative to smoking. A new article examines the idea that one of the initial "health benefits" proposed by e-cigarettes makers was that it would help those who smoke cigarettes cut back. The authors say that theory hasn't been proven, and there's no evidence to support the claims.
Serious mental illnesses reduce life expectancy by 10-20 years, an analysis by psychiatrists has shown -- a loss of years that's equivalent to or worse than that for heavy smoking. Yet mental health has not seen the same public health priority, say the scientists, despite these stark figures and the similar prevalence of mental health problems.
Growing resistance to antibiotics and other drugs demands a coordinated global response on the same scale as efforts to address climate change, say experts. Without an international commitment to tackle the issue, the world faces a future in which simple infections that have been treatable for decades become deadly diseases, they warn.
The circadian system, better known as our biological clock, is responsible for coordinating all the processes that take place in our organism. If it does not function correctly, what is known as a circadian disruption or chronodisruption, has for years been linked to an increased incidence of cancer, obesity, diabetes, depression, cognitive problems or cardiovascular diseases. “Also, circadian disruption in cancer patients aggravates the prognosis of the disease and the chance of survival for these patients diminishes," a researcher noted.
A previously unknown Cent-1 molecule that kills cancer cells has been discovered by scientists. The objective of the research was to accelerate the drug development process by identifying new compounds that would possess similar binding properties and cellular phenotype, but a different chemical structure, as the selected drugs in clinical use or investigational compounds in development. The scientists combined computer-based screening and cell-based assays to create a method that can significantly accelerate drug discovery and thereby lower development costs.
Low levels of physical activity combined with heavy use of electronic media and sedentary behavior are linked to an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and vascular diseases already in 6-8 year-old children, a study concludes. The study showed that low levels of physical activity - and unstructured physical activity in particular - are linked to increased risk factors serious health problems. Heavy use of electronic media, and especially watching too much TV and videos, was linked to higher levels of risk factors in children.
A single episode of binge drinking can have significant negative health effects resulting in bacteria leaking from the gut, leading to increased levels of endotoxins in the blood, clinical scientists have found. Greater gut permeability and increased endotoxin levels have been linked to many of the health issues related to chronic drinking, including alcoholic liver disease.
We're often told to 'forgive and forget' the wrongs that we suffer -- it turns out that there may be some scientific truth behind the common saying. A new study shows that the details of a transgression are more susceptible to forgetting when that transgression has been forgiven.
A plethora of endocrine-disrupting chemicals interfere with human sperm function in a way that may have a negative impact on fertilization, according to new research. The work suggests that endocrine disruptors may contribute to widespread fertility problems in the Western world in a way that hitherto has not been recognized.
Feeling that you have a sense of purpose in life may help you live longer, no matter what your age, according to new research. The research has clear implications for promoting positive aging and adult development, says the lead researcher.
A low rate of adverse events was associated with male circumcision when the procedure was performed during the first year of life, but the risk was 10 to 20 times higher when boys were circumcised after infancy. "Given the current debate about whether male circumcision should be delayed from infancy to adulthood for autonomy reasons, our results are timely and can help physicians counsel parents about circumcising their sons," the researchers concluded.
From the age of 30 onwards, physical inactivity exerts a greater impact on a woman's lifetime risk of developing heart disease than the other well-known risk factors, suggests research. This includes overweight, the finding show, prompting the researchers to suggest that greater effort needs to be made to promote exercise.
Reducing or curbing just six modifiable risk factors -- tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, salt intake, high blood pressure and blood sugar, and obesity -- to globally-agreed target levels could prevent more than 37 million premature deaths over 15 years, from the four main non-communicable diseases (NCDs): cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory disease, cancers, and diabetes, according to new research.
Strategy-based cognitive training has the potential to enhance cognitive performance and spill over to real-life benefit according to a data-driven perspective article. The research-based perspective highlights cognitive, neural and real-life changes measured in randomized clinical trials that compared a gist-reasoning strategy-training program to memory training in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease.
Pancreatic cancer is the only cancer for which deaths are predicted to increase in men and women rather than decrease in 2014 and beyond, according to a comprehensive study. The study looked at cancer rates in the whole of the EU (27 member states as at 2007) and also in the six largest countries – France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the UK – for all cancers, and, individually, for stomach, intestines, pancreas, lung, prostate, breast, uterus (including cervix) and leukaemias.
Breakthroughs that could benefit people suffering from depression are being made by researchers. A team of physician-scientists has identified a major mechanism by which ghrelin (a hormone with natural anti-depressant properties) works inside the brain. Simultaneously, the researchers identified a potentially powerful new treatment for depression in the form of a neuroprotective drug known as P7C3. The study is notable because although a number of anti-depressant drugs and other treatments are available, an estimated one in 10 adults in the U.S. still report depression.
The negative social, physical and mental health effects of childhood bullying are still evident nearly 40 years later, according to new research. The study is the first to look at the effects of bullying beyond early adulthood. Just over a quarter of children in the study (28%) had been bullied occasionally, and 15% bullied frequently -- similar to rates in the UK today. Individuals who were bullied in childhood were more likely to have poorer physical and psychological health and cognitive functioning at age 50. Individuals who were frequently bullied in childhood were at an increased risk of depression, anxiety disorders, and suicidal thoughts.
The size and shape of two brain regions involved in emotion and motivation may differ in young adults who smoke marijuana at least once a week, according to a new study. The findings suggest that recreational marijuana use may lead to previously unidentified brain changes, and highlight the importance of research aimed at understanding the long-term effects of low to moderate marijuana use on the brain.
Moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea is independently associated with an increased risk of stroke, cancer and death. Results of the 20-year follow-up study show that people with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were four times more likely to die (hazard ratio = 4.2), nearly four times more likely to have a stroke (HR = 3.7), three times more likely to die from cancer (HR = 3.4), and 2.5 times more likely to develop cancer. Results were adjusted for potential confounding factors such as body mass index, smoking status, total cholesterol and blood pressure.
Obese people take less time to feel full than those of normal weight. Despite this, they consume more calories. A faster speed of eating could play an important role in obesity, according to a study. "Eating even just 100 kcal a day more than the recommended amount can cause weight gain," write the researchers in their study. "For this reason, the speed of eating is a potential contributing factor in obesity."
The risk of dengue fever beginning to spread in Europe is imminent. According to researchers, this is no longer just an issue for the scientific community but also for politicians and policy makers, who need to be prepared and develop preventive measures.
A link between poor sleep quality and the development of cognitive decline over three to four years was found in a new study of older men. Results show that higher levels of fragmented sleep and lower sleep efficiency were associated with a 40 to 50 percent increase in the odds of clinically significant decline in executive function, which was similar in magnitude to the effect of a five-year increase in age. In contrast, sleep duration was not related to subsequent cognitive decline.
People who are materialistic are more likely to be depressed and unsatisfied, in part because they find it harder to be grateful for what they have, according to a study. "Gratitude is a positive mood. It's about other people," said the study's lead author. "Previous research finds that people are motivated to help people that help them." But materialism tends to be "me-centered." A material outlook focuses on what one does not have, impairing the ability to be grateful for what one already has, researchers said.
In the United States the rate of circumcision in men has increased to 81% over the past decade. In an important new study, authors have shown that the benefits of infant male circumcision to health exceed the risks by over 100 to 1. Over their lifetime half of uncircumcised males will contract an adverse medical condition caused by their foreskin, the researchers suggest.
Men suffering from sexual dysfunction can be successful at reversing their problem by focusing on lifestyle factors and not just relying on medication, according to research. Researchers have highlighted the incidence of erectile dysfunction and lack of sexual desire among Australian men aged 35-80 years.
Inspiration has been linked with people at risk of developing bipolar disorder for the first time in a study. For generations, artists, musicians, poets and writers have described personal experiences of mania and depression, highlighting the unique association between creativity and bipolar disorder -- experiences which are backed up by recent research. But, until now, the specific links between inspiration -- the generation of ideas that form the basis of creative work -- and bipolar disorder has received little attention.
A revolution in cancer treatment could soon be underway following a breakthrough that may lead to a dramatic improvement in cancer survival rates. Commenting on the breakthrough, a study co-author said "The energy-producing machinery in cancer cells works to the limit as it attempts to keep up with quick proliferation and invasion. This makes cancer cells susceptible to minor changes in the cell 'power-house'. Our drug pushes cancer cells over the limit causing them to slow and shut down, whilst normal cells can cope with its effects."
As more people look for ways to turn back the clock or improve their appearance, dermatologists are pioneering many of the newest aesthetic laser technologies – from tattoo removal to erasing fine lines and wrinkles to reducing fat or cellulite. Before considering any cosmetic procedure, dermatologists recommend that consumers do their homework to better understand the best technologies available for their specific needs.
Consuming alcohol more frequently than twice a week increases the risk of stroke mortality in men, according to a study. The results show that the effects of alcohol are not limited to the amount consumed, but also the frequency of drinking matters. Other significant risk factors for stroke include elevated blood pressure, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, smoking, overweight, asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis, and elevated cholesterol levels.
Education significantly improves mental functioning in seniors even four decades after finishing school, shows a new study. The study shows that people who attended school for longer periods performed better in terms of cognitive functioning than those who did not. Using data from individuals aged around 60, the researchers found a positive impact of schooling on memory scores. The fact that young people or their parents did not choose whether to go longer to school strongly suggests that schooling is the cause rather than personal characteristics that would affect this choice and could also explain the differences in cognitive function.
Adolescents with antisocial personality disorder inflict serious physical and psychological harm on both themselves and others. However, little is yet known about the underlying neural processes. Researchers have pinpointed a possible explanation: Their brain regions responsible for social information processing and impulse control are less developed.
Healthy dietary choices in midlife may prevent dementia in later years, according a doctoral thesis. The results showed that those who ate the healthiest diet at the average age of 50 had an almost 90 per cent lower risk of dementia in a 14-year follow-up study than those whose diet was the least healthy. The study was the first in the world to investigate the relationship between a healthy diet as early as in midlife and the risk of developing dementia later on.
A new class of antibiotics to fight bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other drug-resistant bacteria that threaten public health has been discovered by a team of chemists. The new class, called oxadiazoles, was discovered in silico (by computer) screening and has shown promise in the treatment of MRSA in mouse models of infection. MRSA has become a global public-health problem since the 1960s because of its resistance to antibiotics. In the United States alone, 278,000 people are hospitalized and 19,000 die each year from infections caused by MRSA. Only three drugs currently are effective treatments, and resistance to each of those drugs already exists.
Exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution is associated with changes in the right ventricle of the heart that may contribute to the known connection between air pollution exposure and heart disease, according to a new study. “The morphologic changes in the right ventricle of the heart that we found with increased exposure to nitrogen dioxide add to the body of evidence supporting a connection between traffic-related air pollution and cardiovascular disease,” said the lead author. “The many adverse effects of air pollution on human health support continued efforts to reduce this burden.”
A high-protein diet during middle age makes you nearly twice as likely to die and four times more likely to die of cancer, but moderate protein intake is good for you after 65. But how much protein we should eat has long been a controversial topic -- muddled by the popularity of protein-heavy diets such as Paleo and Atkins. Before this study, researchers had never shown a definitive correlation between high protein consumption and mortality risk.
Exposure to passive smoking in childhood causes irreversible damage to the structure of children’s arteries, according to a study. The study is the first to follow children through to adulthood in order to examine the association between exposure to parental smoking and increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) -- a measurement of the thickness of the innermost two layers of the arterial wall -- in adulthood. It adds further strength to the arguments for banning smoking in areas where children may be present, such as cars.
Many children are admitted to general acute wards with mental health problems mistaken for physical disease. Somatic symptoms, such as abdominal pain, headaches, limb pain and tiredness, often mask underlying problems and result in the NHS spending money on investigations to eliminate wrongly diagnosed disease. A literature review examines how children's nurses can recognize such complaints and help to address them.
Remember that slim kid in school -- the one with the cook-from-scratch mom? He’s likely one of the fittest dudes at your high school reunion, according to new research. "One of the best safeguards against your children becoming overweight as adults is how involved you are with their lives," one of the researchers said.
New research has revealed that exposure to common family problems during childhood and early adolescence affects brain development, which could lead to mental health issues in later life. The study used brain imaging technology to scan teenagers aged 17-19. It found that those who experienced mild to moderate family difficulties between birth and 11 years of age had developed a smaller cerebellum, an area of the brain associated with skill learning, stress regulation and sensory-motor control. The researchers also suggest that a smaller cerebellum may be a risk indicator of psychiatric disease later in life, as it is consistently found to be smaller in virtually all psychiatric illnesses.
The majority of women who undergo mastectomy for breast cancer go on to get breast reconstruction, a practice that has increased dramatically over time. Researchers found that 46 percent of patients received reconstruction in 1998 but that figure rose to 63 percent by 2007. While overall rates of reconstruction increased, women who received radiation therapy were less likely to get reconstruction. Radiation therapy is increasingly being used after mastectomy as a way to further reduce the risk of the cancer returning in women with more aggressive or advanced disease. Reconstruction is more challenging after radiation, which limits the reconstruction options available for these patients.
New insights into the physiological causes of depression are leading to treatments beyond common antidepressants such as Prozac and Zoloft, according to an evidence-based report.
A new combination MRI-ultrasound imaging system can result in fewer biopsies and better treatment decisions for prostate cancer patients. The technology fuses MRI images with ultrasound to create a detailed, three-dimensional view of the prostate.
Domoic acid accumulates in seafood and is toxic to the brain. Research indicates that the toxin damages kidneys at concentrations that are 100 times lower than what causes neurological effects.
New research shows that higher consumption of yogurt, compared with no consumption, can reduce the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes by 28 percent. Scientists found that in fact higher consumption of low-fat fermented dairy products, which include all yogurt varieties and some low-fat cheeses, also reduced the relative risk of diabetes by 24 percent overall.
Long-term exposure to particulate matter is associated with an increased risk for heart attack. Moreover, this association can already be observed in levels of particulate exposure below the current specified European limit values.
New types of drug intended for use in place of antibiotics have been given a cautious welcome by scientists.
A thickening of the brain cortex associated with regular meditation or other spiritual or religious practice could be the reason those activities guard against depression -- particularly in people who are predisposed to the disease, according to new research led by Lisa Miller, professor and director of Clinical Psychology and director of the Spirituality Mind Body Institute at Teachers College, Columbia University.
Even "minimally buzzed" drivers are more often to blame for fatal car crashes than the sober drivers they collide with, reports a University of California, San Diego study of accidents in the United States.
People who decrease sitting time and increase physical activity have a lower risk of chronic disease, according to Kansas State University research.
Targeted radiation therapy that is less harmful to healthy cells could see the light of day thanks to a team of French researchers from the Laboratoire de Chimie Physique -- Matière et Rayonnement (CNRS/UPMC) working in collaboration with German and American scientists. Until now, radiotherapy treatments employed to combat cancer used a wide energy range when irradiating biological tissues. By studying at a fundamental level the behavior of molecules subjected to radiation with a carefully chosen energy, the researchers paved the way for tomorrow's radiotherapy treatments, which would not affect as much surrounding tissue and whose total radiation dose would be considerably reduced.
Healthy adults should consume between 20 percent and 35 percent of their calories from dietary fat, increase their consumption of omega-3 fatty acids, and limit their intake of saturated and trans fats, according to an updated position paper from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
Green space in towns and cities could lead to significant and sustained improvements in mental health, finds a new study published in the journal of Environmental Science & Technology.
Much the same way individuals are encouraged to know their blood pressure and cholesterol numbers to maintain a healthy lifestyle, a new editorial in the Journal of Psychopharmacology urges the European public to know and monitor their alcohol intake number using a simple 10 point plan.
Two INSERM research teams led by Pier Vincenzo Piazza and Giovanni Marsicano (INSERM Unit 862 "Neurocentre Magendie" in Bordeaux) recently discovered that pregnenolone, a molecule produced by the brain, acts as a natural defence mechanism against the harmful effects of cannabis in animals.
Most people with dementia who live at home have multiple unmet health and welfare needs, any number of which could jeopardize their ability to remain home for as long as they desire, new Johns Hopkins research suggests.
The greater the anxiety level, the higher risk of having a stroke, according to new research published in the American Heart Association journal Stroke.
While residents of wealthy nations tend to have greater life satisfaction, new research shows that those living in poorer nations report having greater meaning in life.
New psychology research, which could have important public health implications for alleviating some side effects of antidepressants, shows that engaging in exercise at the right time significantly improves sexual functioning in women who are taking the antidepressants.
High cholesterol levels are seen as a cause of dangerous deposits in the bloodstream, which lead to hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). As a consequence, thrombosis, strokes, and heart attacks can develop, which are among the leading causes of death in Western society. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is commonly referred to as the "bad cholesterol," because it promotes atherosclerosis. In contrast, the "good cholesterol," high-density lipoprotein (HDL), helps transport excess cholesterol out of the bloodstream and can counteract an inflammatory reaction in damaged vessel walls.
In the arms race between bacteria and modern medicine, bacteria have gained an edge. In recent decades, bacterial resistance to antibiotics has developed faster than the production of new antibiotics, making bacterial infections increasingly difficult to treat. Scientists worry that a particularly virulent and deadly "superbug" could one day join the ranks of existing untreatable bacteria, causing a public health catastrophe comparable with the Black Death.
People who exercise regularly are better at creative thinking. This is the outcome of research by Leiden cognitive psychologist Lorenza Colato. She published an article on this subject in the scientific magazine Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
For patients with diabetes, it is better to eat a single large meal than several smaller meals throughout the day. This is the result of a current dietary study at Linköping University in Sweden.
A team of researchers led by the University of Southampton has launched an online project to map detailed population information from countries around the world. The WorldPop website aims to provide open access to global demographic data which can be used to help tackle challenges such as, poverty, public health, sustainable urban development and food security.
A team of researchers has brought new clarity to the picture of how gene-environmental interactions can kill nerve cells that make dopamine. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter that sends messages to the part of the brain that controls movement and coordination. Their discoveries, described in a paper published online today in Cell, include identification of a molecule that protects neurons from pesticide damage.
People are less likely to experience dementia and Alzheimer's disease today than they were 20 years ago -- and those who do may be developing it later in life -- says a new perspective article in the New England Journal of Medicine that examines the positive trends in dementia.
It's never too late to get physically active, with even those starting relatively late in life reaping significant health benefits, finds research published online in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.
A foundational study published in top biomedical journal PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Science) this week by researchers at the University of Toronto's Institute of Biomaterials & Biomedical Engineering (IBBME) and the McEwen Centre for Regenerative Medicine have identified the optimal structure and cell ratio associated with heart function -- and the discovery has already led the team to another research first: the engineering of the first-ever living, three-dimensional human arrhythmic tissue.
Non-specialist health workers are beneficial in providing treatment for people with mental, neurological and substance-abuse (MNS) problems in developing countries -- where there is often a lack of mental health professionals -- according to a new Cochrane review.
Antibiotic resistance is an international reality whose solution includes better educating physicians about using bacteria-fighting tools, says an infectious disease physician.
A new study shows that caffeine consumption even six hours before bedtime can have significant, disruptive effects on sleep.
New studies released today underscore the potential impact of healthy lifestyle choices in treating depression, the effects of aging, and learning. The research focused on the effects of mind/body awareness, exercise, and diet, and was presented at Neuroscience 2013, the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience and the world's largest source of emerging news about brain science and health.
Research from Oregon Health & Science University's Vollum Institute, published in the current issue of Nature, is giving scientists a never-before-seen view of how nerve cells communicate with each other. That new view can give scientists a better understanding of how antidepressants work in the human brain -- and could lead to the development of better antidepressants with few or no side effects.
One-third of all acts of violence are perpetrated under the influence of alcohol. They give rise not only to personal suffering, but also to socio-economic costs. What are the causes of alcohol-related aggression? The authors Anne Beck and Andreas Heinz have investigated this question and present their findings in this edition of Deutsches Ärzteblatt International.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known endocrine disruptor that hijacks the normal responses of hormones. Yet, traditional toxicology studies indicate that only very high doses of this chemical affect exposed animals -- doses as high as 50 mg/kg/day. For the past decade, scientists have used modern scientific techniques to probe the effects of BPA on numerous endpoints that are not examined in those traditional toxicology studies. Examining these non-traditional endpoints reveal a very different story. Because of increased understanding of the mechanisms by which hormones and chemicals that mimic hormones work, it has recently become clear that endocrine disruptors need to be studied at much lower doses.
Research by the University of Liverpool has found that people experiencing depressive episodes display increased brain activity when they think about themselves.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy drug given to more than half of all cancer patients. The drug kills cells very effectively by damaging nuclear DNA, but if tumors become resistant to cisplatin they often grow back.
Cancer drugs work because they're toxic, but that's also why they afflict healthy cells, producing side effects that can compromise their efficacy. Nobuhide Ueki thinks he may have found a way to get the drugs to selectively target only the cancer cells, and his team's patent-pending research is the subject of a paper entitled "Selective cancer targeting with prodrugs activated by histone deacetylases and a tumour-associated protease," to be published on November 5 in Nature Communications.
A patient in a seemingly vegetative state, unable to move or speak, showed signs of attentive awareness that had not been detected before, a new study reveals. This patient was able to focus on words signalled by the experimenters as auditory targets as successfully as healthy individuals.
A study has analyzed intake of 17 basic micronutrients in people's diets across eight European countries. The results reveal that, although vitamin D is the most extreme case, European citizens -- across all age and sex ranges -- do not consume sufficient iron, calcium, zinc, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B6 and folic acid.
Physical activity is being increasingly recognized as an effective tool to treat depression. PhD candidate George Mammen's review published in the October issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine has taken the connection one step further, finding that moderate exercise can actually prevent episodes of depression in the long term.
New cocaine and cannabis research reveals that regular cannabis users have increased levels of impulsive behaviour. It had previously been argued that this increased impulsivity after cannabis administration was only experienced by occasional users, but that regular users were no longer affected in this way. Published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, the results provide evidence for how drug use may trigger addictive behaviours.
Spraying a plant hormone on broccoli -- already one of the planet's most nutritious foods -- boosts its cancer-fighting potential, and researchers say they have new insights on how that works. They published their findings, which could help scientists build an even better, more healthful broccoli, in ACS' Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry.
Researchers from UCL have found that children with irregular bedtimes are more likely to have behavioural difficulties. The study, which is published in the journal Pediatrics, found that irregular bedtimes could disrupt natural body rhythms and cause sleep deprivation, undermining brain maturation and the ability to regulate certain behaviours.
According to a new report published by the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), women may expect to live longer but their quality of life will be seriously jeopardized if action to protect their bone health is not taken. Postmenopausal women are the most vulnerable to osteoporosis and fractures. Worldwide, an estimated 200 million women are affected by osteoporosis and around one in three women aged over 50 will suffer from a fracture due to the disease.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects millions of people worldwide. As a result of an increase in life expectancy, the number of patients with dementia is expected to increase dramatically. Due to the lack of effective treatments that can slow down or reverse the progression of AD, preventive measures to lower the prevalence rate of AD by means of managing potential or actual risk factors is a reasonable clinical strategy.
People with poor reading skills are likely to be less healthy than those who read easily, according to recent research. Literacy skills are important for keeping in good shape.
It is the first time that a scientific study associates high polyphenols intake with a 30% reduction in mortality in older adults. The research, published on Journal of Nutrition, is the first to evaluate the total dietary polyphenol intake by using a nutritional biomarker and not only a food frequency questionnaire.
The effects of childhood abuse and lack of parental affection can last a lifetime, taking a toll both emotionally and physically.
New ways are needed to fight the infection Clostridium difficile and better use of antibiotics could be key, according to the authors of ground-breaking research.
After a decade of rapidly growing industrial use, unimaginably tiny particles surround us everywhere, every day, in everything we do. Used in the manufacturing of cosmetics, clothing, paints, food, drug delivery systems and many other familiar products we all use daily, little is known about the effects these materials have on health.
An unexpected discovery
Psychiatrists and psychologists have long understood that an individual's personality can define how he or she views the world around them, reacts to situations, and interacts with others. It now appears that personality traits can be linked to the frequency with which older adults use expensive health care services.
The bodies of mammals, including humans, respond to injury by releasing endogenous opioids -- compounds that mitigate acute pain. A team of researchers led by those at the University of Kentucky has uncovered groundbreaking new information about how the body responds to traumatic injury with the development of a surprisingly long-lasting opioid mechanism of natural chronic pain control. Remarkably, the body develops both physical and physiological dependence on this opioid system, just as it does to opiate narcotic drugs. The research is featured on the cover of the current issue of the prestigious journal Science.
As the NHS prepares to launch Stoptober 2013, new research published in Psychology, Health & Medicine has found another reason to quit smoking -- giving up smoking improves sleep. Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and while the numerous health problems directly caused by smoking are well documented, less is known about the effects of smoking on sleep.
Interdisciplinary research at the University of Copenhagen explains why moderate exercising is more motivating than hard training. The findings have just been published in Scandinavian Journal of Public Health.
An international review led by the University of Melbourne has found children and young people experience poor mental health, depression and anxiety following experiences of racism.
A healthy diet may reduce the risk of severe depression, according to a prospective follow-up study of more than 2,000 men conducted at the University of Eastern Finland.
Researchers at the University of Alberta announced today that they have determined the chemical composition of human urine. The study, which took more than seven years and involved a team of nearly 20 researchers, has revealed that more than 3,000 chemicals or "metabolites" can be detected in urine. The results are expected to have significant implications for medical, nutritional, drug and environmental testing.
Parents beware. If your tots and teens get their hands on your energy drinks, they could experience seizures, heart palpitations or other problems that drive them to the hospital emergency room.
The research, led by the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), in collaboration with the ESRC International Centre for Lifecourse Studies in Society and Health at UCL, found that men and women who had suffered adversity in childhood were more likely to die before age of 50 than those who had not.
Measures taken in developed countries to reduce noncommunicable diseases -- the leading causes of death globally -- have improved the life expectancy of women aged 50 years and older over the last 20 to 30 years. But, according to a study that will be published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization on 2 September, the gap in life expectancy between such women in rich and poor countries is growing.
The international research team found risk factors for cardiovascular disease was lowest in low income countries, intermediate in middle income countries and highest in high income countries. However, the incidence of serious cardiovascular disease such as heart attacks, strokes, heart failure and deaths followed the opposite pattern: highest in the low income countries, intermediate in middle income countries and lowest in high income countries. Hospitalizations for less severe cardiovascular diseases were highest in the high income countries.
"Our study was the first to demonstrate that the presence and severity of coronary blockages do not go away with quitting smoking, but that the risk of heart attack and death does. Future studies are being pursued to determine how this protective effect may occur."
Listening to favourite music improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), according to research presented at ESC Congress 2013 today by Professor Marina Deljanin Ilic from Serbia. Music and exercise training combined produced the most benefit.
Poverty and all its related concerns require so much mental energy that the poor have less remaining brainpower to devote to other areas of life, according to research based at Princeton University. As a result, people of limited means are more likely to make mistakes and bad decisions that may be amplified by -- and perpetuate -- their financial woes.
In a research report appearing in the September 2013 issue of The FASEB Journal, scientists identify the HDAC5 protein as being essential for the maintenance of structures, called telomeres, within cancer cells that promote cancer cells longevity. Cancer cells with longer telomeres tend to be more resistant to therapies, while cancer cells with shorter telomeres tend to be more susceptible. By targeting the mechanism used by cancer cells to maintain telomeres, HDAC5, existing therapies could become far more effective at eradicating cancer than they are today.
Investigators working to stem the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have taken a major step in their efforts to develop new treatments.
The nature of the teenage brain makes users of cannabis amongst this population particularly at risk of developing addictive behaviors and suffering other long-term negative effects, according to researchers at the University of Montreal and New York's Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.
Over the last few years, the use of nanomaterials for water treatment, food packaging, pesticides, cosmetics and other industries has increased. For example, farmers have used silver nanoparticles as a pesticide because of their capability to suppress the growth of harmful organisms. However, a growing concern is that these particles could pose a potential health risk to humans and the environment. In a new study, researchers at the University of Missouri have developed a reliable method for detecting silver nanoparticles in fresh produce and other food products.
Volunteering can improve mental health and help you live longer, finds the study which is published in the open access journal BMC Public Health. The research pools and compares data from multiple experimental trials and longitudinal cohort studies.
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have discovered the molecular mechanism by which the deadly Ebola virus assembles, providing potential new drug targets. Surprisingly, the study showed that the same molecule that assembles and releases new viruses also rearranges itself into different shapes, with each shape controlling a different step of the virus's life cycle.
This study adds more evidence to the argument that patients who are diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancers can opt for an active surveillance, or "watch and wait" approach instead of getting treated right away.
Medical researchers point to developmental factors, specifically the decline of the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin, as an explanation for why children get less sleep as they become teenagers. But a new study suggests that social ties, including relationships with peers and parents, may be even more responsible for changing sleep patterns among adolescents.
Children are more likely to use their strengths to effectively cope with minor stress in their life if they have parents who adopt a strength-based approach to parenting. Strength-based parenting is an approach where parents deliberately identify and cultivate positive states, processes and qualities in their children, the researchers explain.
Everything you eat or drink affects your intestinal bacteria, and is likely to have an impact on your health. That is the finding of a large-scale study into the effect of food and medicine on the bacterial diversity in the human gut.
Research suggests people are momentarily happier when drinking alcohol -- but that over longer periods, drinking more does not make them more satisfied with life.
A new study has debunked the association between milk and dairy products and increased cardiovascular risk. The work included the computational analysis of the masses of data obtained in relation to an innovative new biomarker.